St._John's_University_Advanced_Human_Anatomy_and_Physiology_I_BIO_3100_Lecture_Outline_Chapter_14_Th

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1St. John’s UniversityDr. Emanuel J. PepitoneBIO 3100: Advanced Human Anatomy and Physiology IChapter 14 Lecture NotesChapter 14: The Brain and Cranial NervesIntroductionThe brain is the largest and most complex part of the nervous system.It is the center for registering sensations, correlating them with one another and with storedinformation, making decisions, and taking action.The brain:Is the center for intellect, emotions, behavior and memory?Attains full growth and weight (3 lbs) by age 20.Requires 20% of the body’s total oxygen content.Will experiencePERMANENT DAMAGEif deprived of oxygen for 5-6 minutes.Has a limited storage capacity for glucose and it must continually be supplied withglucose; glucose deficiency may produce mental confusion, dizziness, convulsions andunconsciousness.Overview of brain organization:The major parts of the brain are the brain stem, diencephalon, cerebrum, and cerebellumProtective coverings of the brain:The brain is protected by the cranial bones and the cranial meninges. The cranial meninges arecontinuous with spinal meninges; the meninges are the connective tissue membranessurrounding brain and spinal cord.
2The dura mater exists as a double layer in the cranial cavity only; it has an external periosteal(endosteal) layer that is fused with the periosteum and an internal fibrous meningeal layer. Thespinal dura mater does not exist as a double layer.Three extensions or folds of the meningeal layer of the dura mater separate parts of the brain:Falx Cerebri:rests in longitudinal fissure; fold or extension separating the right and lefthemispheres of cerebrum.Falx Cerebelli:rests between the cerebellar hemispheres; fold or extension thatseparates the right and left hemispheres of the cerebellum.Tentorium cerebelli:separates the cerebellum from occipital lobe of the cerebrum.Cerebrospinal fluid:Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear colorless fluid with a total volume in the adult of 100-200mls. It fills the ventricles (empty cavities) of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord.Formations of CSF- there are four CSF filled communicating networks of cavities within thebrain calledventricles.Lateral ventricles(the 1stand 2ndventricles): are the principle sites of CSF production. There isone in each cerebral hemisphere. There is also CSF traveling through the central canal of thespinal cord.Third ventricle- drains the lateral ventricles through an opening calledforamen of Monro. Thelocation of the third ventricle is the midpoint of the thalamus. CSF from the third ventricledrains into the fourth ventricle through thecerebral aqueductoraqueduct of Sylvius. Thefourth ventricle is located between the brainstem and the cerebellum.

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Term
Spring
Professor
Vladimir Poltrasky
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