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Chapter 3 Moral Frameworks.pptx - CHAPTER 3 MORAL...

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CHAPTER 3MORALFRAMEWORKS
RIGHT ETHICS, DUTYETHICS ANDUTILITARIANISM
RIGHT ETHICSRights ethics says we ought to respect humanrightsMakes human rights the ultimate appealRights ethics applies to engineering in many ways.It provides a powerful foundation for the specialethical requirements in engineering and otherprofessions.
Special Moral Rightsrights held by particular individuals rather than byevery human being
Liberty Rightsare rights to exercise our liberty, and they place dutieson other people not to interfere with our freedom.
Welfare rightsare rights to benefits needed for a decent human life,when we cannot earn those benefits, perhaps becausewe are severely handicapped, and when the communityhas them available
DUTY ETHICSreverses the order of priority by beginning withduties and deriving rights from them.Duty ethics says that right actions are thoserequired by duties to respect the liberty orautonomy (self-determination) of individuals.
One duty ethicist suggests thefollowing list of important duties:(1)Do not kill.(2)Do not cause pain.(3)Do not disable.(4)Do not deprive of freedom.(5)Do not deprive of pleasure.(6)Do not deceive.(7)Keep your promises.(8)Do not cheat.(9)Obey the law.(10)Do your duty [referring to work, family, and other
Autonomymoral self-determination or self-governance—means having thecapacity to govern one’s life in accordance with moral duties
Conflated three ideas:(1) universality—moral rules apply to allrational agents;(2) categorical imperatives—moral rulescommand what is right because it is right;and(3) absolutism—moral rules have no justifiedexceptions.
prima facie dutiessimply means “might have justifiedexceptions” (rather than “at first glance”)
UTILITARIANISMUtilitarianism says that we ought to maximize theoverall good, taking into equal account all thoseaffected by our actions.
General Moral Requirement:“Produce the most good for themost people, giving equalconsideration to everyoneaffected.”
rule-utilitarianismright actions are those required by rulesthat produce the most good for themost people.
optimal moral codethat set of rules which maximizes the public goodmore than alternative codes would (or at least asmuch as alternatives).

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