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# CH09 - CHAPTER 9 Capital-Budgeting Techniques and Practice...

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CHAPTER 9 Capital-Budgeting Techniques and Practice Orientation : Capital budgeting involves the decision-making process with respect to investment in fixed assets; specifically, it involves measuring the incremental cash flows associated with investment proposals and evaluating the attractiveness of these cash flows relative to the project’s costs. This chapter focuses on the various decision criteria. It also examines how to deal with complications in the capital-budgeting process including mutually exclusive projects and capital rationing. I. Methods for evaluating projects A. The payback period method 1. The payback period of an investment tells the number of years required to recover the initial investment. The payback period is calculated by adding the cash flows up until they are equal to the initial fixed investment. 2. Although this measure does, in fact, deal with cash flows and is easy to calculate and understand, it ignores any cash flows that occur after the payback period and does not consider the time value of money within the payback period. B. Present-value methods 1. The net present value of an investment project is the present value of the cash inflows less the present value of the cash outflows. By assigning negative values to cash outflows, it becomes 111

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NPV = = + n 1 t t t k) (1 FCF - IO where FCF t = the annual free cash flow in time period t (this can take on either positive or negative values) k = the required rate of return or appropriate discount rate or cost of capital IO = the initial cash outlay n = the project’s expected life a. The acceptance criteria are accept if NPV 0 reject if NPV < 0 b. The advantage of this approach is that it takes the time value of money into consideration in addition to dealing with cash flows. 2. The profitability index is the ratio of the present value of the expected future net cash flows to the initial cash outlay, or profitability index = IO k) (1 FCF n 1 t t t - + a. The acceptance criteria are accept if PI 1.0 reject if PI < 1.0 b. The advantages of this method are the same as those for the net present value. c. Either of these present-value methods will give the same accept/reject decisions to a project. 112
C. The internal rate of return is the discount rate that equates the present value of the project’s future net cash flows with the project’s initial outlay. Thus the internal rate of return is represented by IRR in the equation below: IO = = + n 1 t t t IRR) (1 FCF 1. The acceptance-rejection criteria are: accept if IRR required rate of return reject if IRR < required rate of return The required rate of return is often taken to be the firm’s cost of capital.

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