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Chemistry exam 3 review

Chemistry exam 3 review - rest of the universe that...

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Chemistry exam 3 review chapter 6 – Thermochemistry Energy the capacity to do work o Potential energy stored energy Potential energy stored is converted to electrical work o Kinetic energy moving other objects; moving objects E K = ½ mv 2 (m) mass; kilograms (v) speed; meters per second Kinetic energy: (kg) x (m/s) 2 = kg m 2 s -2 = J SI unit for energy: Joule o 1 kJ = 1000 J Work product of a force acting in the direction of motion and the distance the object is moved o Work = force X distance Force: required to change speed of objects Acceleration newton (N) same unit as energy (joule) thermochemistry study of energy changes that occur during physical processes and chemical reactions o system part of the universe we are studying solution in a beaker, gas in a cylinder, lake, atmosphere open system exchanges matter and/or energy closed system energy but not matter isolated system neither matter nor energy o surroundings
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Unformatted text preview: rest of the universe that interact w/system beaker, surface, surrounding air • internal energy (U) total energy contained within the system o partly kinetic, partly potential translated motion straight-line motion rotational motion spinning vibrational displacement of atoms within molecules • Heat (q) amount of energy transferred between a system and its surroundings as a result of temperature differences o Higher temperatures to lower temperatures o Heat transfer stops when they reach the same temperature Thermal equilibrium o A system does not contain heat; it contains internal energy • Work (w) a system does not contain work o Pressure-volume work: work done when gases either expand or are compressed. o W = F X D (force times distance) o Constant external pressure: w = P∆V ∆V = change in the volume of gas...
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