Anatomy Notes - Anatomy Notes Methods of study Inspection...

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Anatomy Notes Methods of study Inspection, palpitation, auscultation, percussion, dissection, medical imaging Radiography: X-rays penetrate soft tissues and absorbed by dense tissues (bone, teeth, tumors, tuberculosis nodules). Fill hollow organs with radiopaque substances that absorb x-rays; ex. Barium sulfate Angiography substances for the examination of blood vessels Sonography Ultrasonic waves Echocardiography for heart CT/CAT scan Much sharper than x-ray Detects tumors, aneurysms, cerebral hemorrhages, kidney stones MRI Superior to CAT scan for visualizing soft tissues; can “see” through the skull and vertebral column to produce images of nervous tissue. Radio waves, hydrogen atoms fMRI for shifting brain activity PET scan assess metabolic state of a tissue and which are active at a given moment radioactive glucose ingested which emits positrons damaged tissues consume little or no glucose (appears dark) nuclear medicine
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what is black does not absorb x-rays and allows their passage, and what is what DOES absorb x-rays and is radiodense Anatomical Position: person stands erect with feet flat on the floor, arms at the sides, and the palms, face, and eyes, are forward; standard frame of reference for description and dissection Directional Terms Ventral=toward the front or belly * Dorsal=toward the back or spine Anterior=toward the ventral side* Posterior=toward the dorsal side* Cephalic=toward the head or superior end Rostral=toward the forehead or nose Caudal=toward the tail or inferior end Superior=above Inferior=below Medial=toward the midsagittal plane Lateral=away from the midsagittal plane Proximal=closer to the point of attachment or origin Distal=farther from the point of attachment or origin Superficial=closer to the body surface Deep=farther from the body surface Examples: the aorta is ventral to the vertebral column, the vertebral column is dorsal to the aorta, the sternum is anterior to the heart, the esophagus is posterior to the trachea, the
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Anatomy Notes - Anatomy Notes Methods of study Inspection...

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