review1 - 1. What is the difference between science and...

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1. What is the difference between science and scientism? (Review the article by Eugenie Scott.) “But although science itself does not infringe on religion's turf, philosophical outgrowths of science do. Scientism (materialism, philosophical naturalism) claims that scientific understanding eliminates the possibility (or likelihood) of a supernatural world; the material universe is all there is. Science and reason are sufficient to answer all important questions, whether about the natural world or about morals and ethics. It is scientism that disturbs religion; science itself should not. Clearly, science and scientism can be decoupled--it is done every day in schools and universities all over the globe. But many scientists do not differentiate when they speak as scientists from when they speak as philosophers…” Scientism : the notion that the methods and theories of the physical and biological sciences are just as suitable and vital to the humanities and social sciences. Holding to the primacy of science over religious, mythical, or spiritual interpretations of life. 2. Distinguish between the scientific and colloquial use of the word "theory". Scientific A model of the universe, or a restricted part of it, and a set of rules that relate quantities in the model to observations that we make. Well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world; an organized system of accepted knowledge that applies in a variety of circumstances to explain a specific set of phenomena. Colloquial a conjecture or guess 3. Differentiate between science and pseudoscience. Pseudoscience if: Source of claim is not reliable. Source often makes similar claims. Not been verified by other source. Does not fit with what we know about the world works. No one has gone out of the way to disprove the claim, or only supportive evidence has been sought. The preponderance of evidence points to a different conclusion. The claimant does not employ the accepted rules of reason and tools of research, or those are abandoned in favor of others that lead to the desired conclusion. Claimant does not provide an explanation for the observed phenomena/ merely denies the existing explanation. When the claimant proffers a new explanation, it does not account for as many phenomena as the old explanation did. Claimant’s personal beliefs and biases drive the conclusions, or vice versa. 1
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4. How does the scientific method differ from other forms of inquiry? Hypothesis can be tested; this is a self-correcting process because if the evidence fails to support a hypothesis, it is either abandoned or modified and subjected to further tests. Detailed description of method used to test hypothesis is usually published- other
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review1 - 1. What is the difference between science and...

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