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Biology Exam Review #1

Biology Exam Review #1 - Biology Exam Review#1 1...

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Biology Exam Review #1 1) Aristotle - (384-322 BC)- foundation of biology -observed earth, air, fire, and water. -wrote about animals seasons, stars, and moon - knowledge gained by senses -understanding the natural world thru observation and logic 2) St. Augustine - (254-430 AD)- get to know God Supernatural 3) Thomas Aquinas - made distinction b/t natural truth and revealed truth -Natural truth- refers to nature -Revealed truth- refers to theology 4) Roger Bacon (1214-1294)- urged ppl to reject religious dogma and “look at the world” 5) Francis Bacon (1551-1626)- experimentalism as a way to verify and rigorously test all things. 6) Copernicus- like Galileo 7) Galileo -(1564-1642) believed that Earth is round and revolves around the sun 8) James Usher (mid 1700s)- earth was created in 4004 BC 9) John Ray- (1627-1705)- fossils were the remnants of once living things 10) Linnaeus- (1707-1778)- classification ; biological system of nomenclature (genus and species name) 11) Buffon- (1707-1788)- wrote Natural history of Animals ; homologous/vestigial structures 12) Hutton- (1785)- gradualism (opp. Of catastrophism)- hypothesized that it was possible to explain variations in landforms by geological processes sedimentation 13) Lyell- (1797-1875)- expanded hutton’s theory uniformitarianism- geological processes have remained “uniform” thru history. -“Principles of Geology” 14) Cuvier- (1769-1832)- catastrophism the boundaries of each layer of strata correspond to a catastrophe that destroyed the species of the time. 15) Lamark- (1744-1829)- evolution by use and disue organs that an organism uses will become stronger and more functional, those that are not used will deteriorate. 16) Asa Gray- 17) Ernst Haeckel- Monism (1866)- unified whole; one superior race (German)
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18) William Jennings Bryan - wanted to ban teaching of evolution; didn’t want society to reach perfection by hate -was against Darrow 19) Clarence Darrow - defended John Scopes (who was found guilty for teaching evolution and paid $100) 1. What is the difference between science and scientism? (Review the article by Eugenie Scott.) 2. Distinguish between the scientific and colloquial use of the word "theory". 3. Differentiate between science and pseudoscience. Pseduoscience- is any body of knowledge, methodology, belief, or practice that claims to be scientific but does not follow the scientific method. Science- uses the scientific method 4. How does the scientific method differ from other forms of inquiry? - It is a systematic approach 5. Give some examples of applied biology. (Chapter 1 Purves) 6. What is evidential reasoning? 7. When was the age of theology? 8.
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Biology Exam Review #1 - Biology Exam Review#1 1...

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