Chemistry of Life
#1: Describe the distinguishing characteristics of living things.
order, reproduction, growth and development, energy use, response to the environment,
#2: List and distinguish among the six kingdoms (three domains) of life.
domain 1: animalia (1), plantae (2), protista (3), fungi (4)
domain 2: archaebacteria (5)
domain 3: eubacteria (6)
#3: Describe the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
lack membrane-bound organelles, no defined nucleus, circular
double helix DNA in rod-like chromosome with nucleus, organelles
#4: Explain the relationships between atoms, elements, molecules, compounds, and
consists of only one kind of atom, cannot be broken down into a simpler type
of matter by either physical or chemical means, and can exist as either atoms or
two or more atoms of the same element, or different elements, that are
chemically bound together
consists of atoms of two or more different elements bound together, can be
broken down into a simpler type of matter (elements) by chemical means (but not
physical), has properties that are different from its component elements, and always
contains the same ratio of its components
consists of two or more different elements and/or compounds physically
intermingled, can be separated into its components by physical means, and often retains
many of the properties of its components.
#5: List the four elements essential to life (96% of living matter)
O,N,C,H (oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen)
#6: Explain how electron configuration influences the reactivity of an atom.
Full valence shell: not reactive
All atoms want a full outer shell (either gain or lose electrons to get it.)
#7: Explain the difference between isotopes and radioisotopes.
the same element (same # of protons) but different # of neutrons
isotope that gives off radiation/energy (breakdown of the nucleus to a
more stable state releasing radiation –alpha, beta, or gamma)
#8: Distinguish between nonpolar covalent, polar covalent, ionic bonds, and
electrons share equally to form full outer shell
electrons shared but one with greater electronegativity
electrons transfer to form full outer shell
weak attraction of a partially positive hydrogen to a negatively charged atom
in another molecule
#9: Explain the relationship between the polar nature of water and its ability to
form hydrogen bonds.
high electronegativity of O --- partial+ H and partial- O