bio final review

bio final review - Chemistry of Life #1: Describe the...

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Chemistry of Life #1: Describe the distinguishing characteristics of living things. order, reproduction, growth and development, energy use, response to the environment, homeostasis #2: List and distinguish among the six kingdoms (three domains) of life. domain 1: animalia (1), plantae (2), protista (3), fungi (4) domain 2: archaebacteria (5) domain 3: eubacteria (6) #3: Describe the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic: lack membrane-bound organelles, no defined nucleus, circular chromosome Eukaryotic: double helix DNA in rod-like chromosome with nucleus, organelles #4: Explain the relationships between atoms, elements, molecules, compounds, and mixtures. Atoms: Elements: consists of only one kind of atom, cannot be broken down into a simpler type of matter by either physical or chemical means, and can exist as either atoms or molecules Molecules: two or more atoms of the same element, or different elements, that are chemically bound together Compounds: consists of atoms of two or more different elements bound together, can be broken down into a simpler type of matter (elements) by chemical means (but not physical), has properties that are different from its component elements, and always contains the same ratio of its components Mixtures: consists of two or more different elements and/or compounds physically intermingled, can be separated into its components by physical means, and often retains many of the properties of its components. #5: List the four elements essential to life (96% of living matter) O,N,C,H (oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen) #6: Explain how electron configuration influences the reactivity of an atom. Full valence shell: not reactive All atoms want a full outer shell (either gain or lose electrons to get it.) #7: Explain the difference between isotopes and radioisotopes. Isotope: the same element (same # of protons) but different # of neutrons Radioisotope: isotope that gives off radiation/energy (breakdown of the nucleus to a more stable state releasing radiation –alpha, beta, or gamma) #8: Distinguish between nonpolar covalent, polar covalent, ionic bonds, and hydrogen bonds. nonpolar covalent: electrons share equally to form full outer shell polar covalent: electrons shared but one with greater electronegativity ionic: electrons transfer to form full outer shell hydrogen: weak attraction of a partially positive hydrogen to a negatively charged atom in another molecule #9: Explain the relationship between the polar nature of water and its ability to form hydrogen bonds. high electronegativity of O --- partial+ H and partial- O
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#10: Describe the four main properties of water (cohesive behavior, ability to stabilize temperatures, expansion upon freezing, and versatility as a solvent). (all because of H2 bonding)
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/15/2008 for the course BIO 1305 taught by Professor Eldridge during the Spring '08 term at Baylor.

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bio final review - Chemistry of Life #1: Describe the...

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