1306 finalreview

1306 finalreview - 1306 Final Exam Review Adair 1 Evolution...

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1306 Final Exam Review Adair 1 Evolution People and Dates: Who are these people? What are they famous for? Linnaeus: classification ; biological system of nomenclature (genus and species name) Hutton: gradualism (opposite of catastrophism); hypothesized that it was possible to explain variations in landforms by geological processes (sedimentation); according to this theory, older layers of strata that contain fossils will be found underneath newer layers Cuvier: catastrophism (the boundaries of each layer of strata correspond to a catastrophe that destroyed the species of the time); studied the stratification of sediment Lyell: expanded Hutton’s theory; uniformitarianism (geological processes have remained ‘uniform’ throughout history); principles of geology Lamark: evolution by use and disuse (organs that an organism uses will become stronger and more functional, those that are not used will deteriorate or become vestigial); theory of inheritance of aquired characteristics (traits that are obtained during a lifetime can be passed onto offspring) Darwin: HMS Beagle, theory of evolution based on his observations on this voyage. John Scopes: convicted and fined $100 for teaching evolution in his school. They lost the case, but scope’s team won the argument. Evolution didn’t appear in school books until the 1960’s 1. Distinguish between the scientific and colloquial use of the word "theory". -scientific: a model of the universe, or a restricted part of it, and a set of rules that relate quantities in the model to observations that we make; well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world; an organized system of accepted knowledge that applies in a variety of circumstances to explain a specific set of phenomena. -colloquial: a conjecture or guess 2. Define biological evolution and describe the ideas Darwin's used to develop the theory of descent with modification. biological evolution : a change in the genetic composition of a population of organisms over time 3. Describe the methods that have been used to test the hypothesis that populations change genetically and phenotypically from generation to generation. 4. Explain the reasons that ‘Intelligent Design Creationism’ is not and cannot be scientifically supported. - it cannot be tested through an experiment/cannot propose a new testable hypothesis; it is only an explanation 5. Explain how the principle of gradualism and Charles Lyell's theory of uniformitarianism influenced Darwin's ideas about evolution. -geological processes occur gradually over time -gradualism gave Darwin the idea that the earth’s organisms have also been subject to slow, continuous change 6. Describe when and where Darwin traveled on the Beagle. -Cape Verde Islands
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1306 finalreview - 1306 Final Exam Review Adair 1 Evolution...

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