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3exam08 - 1 initials 1 a(1.5 What are the three Domains of...

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1 initials _________ 1. a. (1.5) What are the three Domains of life? 1. _ Bacteria __ 2. _ Archaea ___ 3. _ Eukarya __ b. (1) The endosymbiotic theory states that one of the Domains that you listed above gained its mitochondria from the union of the other two. The host domain (the one that engulfed the symbiont) is from the __ Archaea __ Domain. The symbiont (the mitochondria) is from the ___ Bacteria ____ Domain. c. (2) What two modifications of the morphology of the host domain were necessary so that the “engulfing” of the symbiont was possible? 1. Increase in size 2. Loss of cell wall d. (2) Evidence from protein synthesis biochemistry has been used to support the identity of the host Domain in the endosymbiotic theory. Support your choice of the host domain using information about the initiation of protein synthesis in the three domains. Bacteria use a modified amino acid to initiate protein synthesis, Archaea and Eukarya use the same unmodified amino acid. e. (1.5) Chloroplasts are considered to have their origin in one of the two Prokaryotic Domains. Name the domain and describe how the SSUrRNA sequence of the ribosome of the chloroplast supports this hypothesis. When sequences are compared to the SSUrRNA tree of the domains, the sequence falls in the domain Bacteria. 2. a. (2) Write the Fick’s Law equation and the time of diffusion equation: Rsub = A D (c1-c2/d) time to diffuse a distance = d 2 /2D b. (5) Briefly describe each term to the right of the “=” in the Fick’s equation by listing the term in the table and giving a description. “C1-C2” can be discussed as a single term.) Term Description A Area available for diffusion D A constant experimentally determined for each substance (solute) in a solution (solvent). Or for each pair of substances. Solvent and solute are not required but are correct. d the distance which the molecule must diffuse. c1-c2 The concentration of the substance on each side of the membrane (concentration gradient) concentration gradient is not required but is correct. c. (2) I have a latex balloon filled blue dye. I drop it into a beaker of clear water. In several days, I find the water in the beaker has turned blue. The parameters of this system can be described by Fick’s Law. If I were able to determine the values for all of the variables for the dye and I solved the equation, what would it tell me? The (net) amount of dye that will cross the membrane of the balloon in a given amount of time. Net amount is not required but is correct.
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2 initials _________ 3. a. (1) The first stage of animal development is the blastula . In introductory textbooks it is illustrated as a hollow ball. However, the blastula may take different forms. What is the general description of the blastula stage of an organism? 1 Without becoming larger, the zygote undergoes cell division to become 2 a collection of undifferentiated cells.
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