Notes (Week7) - Prosocial Behavior

Notes (Week7) - Prosocial Behavior - Notes for Week 7...

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Notes for Week 7 Penner et al., 2005 Prosocial Behavior: I) Meso Level of Analysis – examines helping between two individuals a. When People Help i. Latane and Darley’s Decision Model of Bystander Intervention – relies on decisions 1. Does the situation require assistance 2. Should I take personal responsibility 3. How can I help ii. Cost-reward Analysis of Helping 1. Participants help according to what’s the best outcome for them a. Helping is more likely to occur if rewards are high and costs are low b. Why People Help i. Learning – helping because of operant conditioning and social learning ii. Social Norms – the presence of social or personal norms to help iii. Arousal and Affect – seeing people arouses personal distress (even in young children) and empathy, which people wish to relieve c. Unconscious Processes i. Priming – priming helping behavior directly or ingroup favoritism 1. Recategorizing people as ingroup members increases helping II) Micro Level of Analysis – examines the development of helping behavior through evolution, human development and personality/biological factors a. Evolutionary Theory – helping behavior ensures the survival of your genes i. Kin Selection – inclusive theory of fitness depending on the passage of one’s genes through any source (humans are more incline to help depending on “relatedness”) ii. Reciprocal Altruism – makes groups more likely to survive (exists in every culture) iii. Group Selection – if two groups are pitted against one another, the group with more altruistic people who are willing to sacrifice themselves for the group will win out b. Biological/Genetic Bases – physiologically based affective/motivational state predisposes some people over others toward prosocial behavior i. Empathic affect seems to be innate, arriving shortly after birth 1. Empathy does seem to be partly heritable c. Human Development – temperament and early personality affect predisposing prosocial behavior d. Personality – prosocial behavior seems to be a type of personality trait, stable from childhood i. “Happier” personality traits are usually correlated with increased prosocial behavior
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course PSC 245 taught by Professor Joel during the Winter '07 term at UC Davis.

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Notes (Week7) - Prosocial Behavior - Notes for Week 7...

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