HD 115 Chapter 7 - HD 115 Chapter 7 Emotional Social...

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HD 115 Chapter 7 Emotional & Social Development in Infancy & Toddlerhood Read last page of 7 and Development of Temperament - 2 aspects of personality dev: close 2 ties 2 others and a sense of self Erikson’s Theory of Infant & Toddler Personality - Leader of neo-Freudian perspectives is Erik Erikson’s psychosocial theory Basic Trust vs. Mistrust - 1 st year is the oral stage; gratification of infants need 4 food & oral stimulation is vital - Healthy outcomes depends on quality of caregiver’s behavior, not amount of oral stimulation - Many things affect parental responsiveness: feelings of personal happiness, momentary life conditions - When balance of care is sympathetic & loving, the psychological conflict is resolves on the positive side (A trusting infant feels confident about venturing & exploring the world) Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt - Parents manner of toilet training is essential 4 psychological health - This conflict is resolved favorably when parents provide kids w/ suitable guidance & reasonable choices o Parents need 2 meet his assertions if independence w/ tolerance & understanding (i.e. give him 5 more minutes of play and wait patiently while he puts on his jacket) o A child that feels forces and shames doubts his ability 2 act competently on his own - Trust & autonomy grow out of warm & sensitive parenting Emotional Development - Another aspect of infant-caregiver behavior: exchange of emotions - Emotions energize dev - Facial expressions offer the most reliable cues Development of Basic Emotions - Basic emotions are universal and promote survival; include happiness, interest, disgust, surprise, anger, gear, sadness, etc - Babies have 2 main global arousal states; dynamic systems perspective explains how it happens o Attraction 2 pleasant stimulation
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o Withdrawal from unpleasant stimulation - Kids coordinate separate skills into more effective systems as CNS develops and as goals & experiences change - By middle of 1 st year emotional expressions are well organized & specific Happiness - Contributes 2 many aspects of dev - Kids may smile & laugh when they conquer new skills; the smile encourages caregivers to be affectionate & stimulating so the baby smiles even more - Happiness binds parent and baby into a warm and supportive relationship - By 6 to 10 weeks, face evokes a broad grin called a social smile - Laughter comes at about 3 – 4 months; it reflects a faster processing of info; often occurs in response 2 very active stimuli (kissing the baby’s tummy) - During the 2 nd year, the smile becomes a deliberate social signal Anger & Sadness - Unpleasant experiences like hunger, painful medical procedures, changes in body temp evoke responses of generalized distress - From 4 – 6 months of 2 nd year, angry expressions INC in freq and intensity - When infants are capable of intentional behavior, they want 2 control their actions and their respective effects - Rise in anger is adaptive; its also a social signal that motivates caregivers to ease the baby’s distress - Sadness often occurs when infants are deprived of a familiar, loving caregiver -
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