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11-05-05 three views on ethics

11-05-05 three views on ethics - even be lying because to...

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1/5/05 Three Views on Ethics I) Utilitarianism (John Stuart Mill) – acting to maximize pleasure “and” minimize pain “for all” a. Different from the hedonic calculus, to maximize pleasure and minimize pain, which kind of screws over the minority II) Duty Ethics/Deontology (Kant) – what makes something moral is that it’s done out of duty, it’s absolutely necessary, because to do the other would go against logic (categorical imperative absolutely necessary) a. Assumes that the consequences of actions are irrelevant, only the logic of the action matters b. An act is moral only if it is not illogical for everyone to do all of the time, if it’s extreme, universal form does not defeat itself i. Only really works for extreme actions (perfect duty) ii. Example – lying is immoral because if everyone lied all of the time then they wouldn’t really
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Unformatted text preview: even be lying, because to lie is to intentionally deceive someone and if everyone lied all of the time no one would be deceiving anyone iii. Example – murder is immoral because if everyone murdered all of the time then no one would be left around to follow the rule and keep on murdering III) Virtue/Character Ethics (Aristotle) – people consistently act more toward their character than rules; training is more important than making rules because it is people’s habits that will determine whether they will act morally, rules or not a. Virtuous Person Standard – “what would a virtuous person do?” is the standard from which actions are measured in their morality...
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