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Gutierrez, Internal Colonialism: An American Theory of Race-Black power came out of Malcolm X’s rejection of Negroand acceptance of Black and African American identities1. Opp to MLK’s view of Black equality instead of black power cuz it sounded like black domination rather than equality-Internal colonization: modern capitalist practice of oppression and exploitation of racial and ethnic minorities within borders of state characterized by domination, oppression, & exploitation; shown in:1. Forced entry- colonized group enters involuntarily2. Cultural impact- indigenous values are transformed & destroyed3. External administration (exploitation)- experience of being managed & manipulated by outsiders in terms of ethnic status4. Racism- principle of social domination where inferior group is exploited, controlled and oppressed socially & physically-Utopian nationalist ideas from theory of internal colonialism=territorial autonomy, self-determination, community control, & end to racismOmi, Racial Formation-Anyone with at least 1/32nd“Negro blood” was labeled black-Race is just based on skin color, but we can’t grasp that as a society-What is race? Race is a concept which signifies and symbolizes social conflicts and interests by referring to diff types of human bodies-Can’t remove “race” because it is central to everyone’s identity and understanding the social world-Racial formation sociohistorical process by which racial categories are created, inhabited, transformed, and destroyed-Racial formation as Macro-level social process1. Charles Murray: morally invalid to treat people “differently from one another” due to race2. Thurgood Marshall: in social structure, race continues to signify diff & structure inequality-Two languages of race1. Minority see centrality of race in history & everyday experience2. Whites see race as “peripheral, nonessential reality”Gordon, Race, Biraciality, and mixed race in theory-Hitler in Mein Kampf- superior group is superior in sphere & can’t be touched, inferior group needs justification of superior group -Biraciality-“mixed” is function of colored realities not white ones-White signifies purity as mixture among blacks signifies divide of beauty & ugliness-Denegrificaiton- blackness needs to be eliminated or reduced-Everyday people don’t think about races but of groups of people who are identified as races by people who theorize about what human beings are and what they do-Children learn about groups to hate although they have no clue about what races are-Mixed Race TheoryIf whites and blacks are “pure”, mixtures are “other” forms of raceBiracial offspring “is” biologically & culturally both of his/her parentsIf race means black or white, mixture is “racelessness”Racial mixtures dilutes identities of “purity” & is imp on road to raceless or more racially free futureMixed people have unique experiences that can be shared through group identification-Be white, but above all, don’t be black; white supremacy; black infer.