1.3.3 Chapter 1 – How Do We Know? I) History of Human Knowledge a. Metaphysical Systems (supernatural) i. Animism – belief that natural phenomena are alive and influence behavior 1. ex – Aristotle thought that those possessing animal characteristics also displayed that animals temperament ii. Mythology/Religion – deities/demons play role in human behavior iii. Astrology – behavior determined by stars b. Philosophy – study of knowledge, behavior, universal dynamic by using logic, intuition and empirical observations. i. Much like science, but with roots in the metaphysical ii. Karl Popper – developed “positivism ” which states that one should base belief off of observations c. Physiology and Physical Sciences i. Helps turn positivism into systematic observational testing d. Experimental Psychology i. Wundt – first to use the scientific method in psychology in trying to divide consciousness into workable parts
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History of Human Knowledge, systematic observational testing, meaningful systematic causes, theories Operational Definitions, Physiology and Physical Sciences