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Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 How Do We Find Out The Logic of...

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1.4.3 Chapter 2 – How Do We Find Out? The Logic of Scientific Discovery Primary Goal of Science – to establish laws of nature I) Laws, Theories and Hypotheses Critics: We shouldn’t overanalyze things, it ruins experiences Although we shouldn’t overanalyze things, we need to know about them, but afterward we can still enjoy them Critics: We can never wholly predict a person’s behavior But we can generally predict the behavior of people. The fact that predictions are flawed doesn’t mean rules don’t govern people’s behavior a. Law – Universal statement of the nature of things that allows for future predictions b. Theory – a general statement about the relation between variables i. They are logical, orderly, and illustrate causal relations ii. They must be empirically grounded and make accurate predictions iii. They should be testable Contrast: Law is universal (explains aggression) whereas Theory has boundaries (explains physical aggression, not verbal) c. Hypothesis – Predictions about certain events that play out theories i. Help to test theories’ boundaries and validity II) Science of Observation d. Bacon
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