1.4.3 Chapter 3 – Moving from Fact to Truth: Validity, Reliability and Measurement I) Validity – relative accuracy or correctness of statement a. Internal Validity – the extent in which research reveals compelling information about causality i. Independent variable did cause changes in dependant variable ii. Achieve this through 1. controlling for individual differences 2. isolating their independent variable so that it’s not contaminated (lurking variable) iii. Mill , John Stewart – invented 3 things to meet in establishing causality 1. Covariation – changes in one variable must correspond with changes in the other 2. Temporal Sequence – changes in independent variable must precede changes in dependent variable 3. Eliminating Confounds – (3 rd variable problem) something causing change in both variables b. External Validity (“generalizability”) – extent to which research findings correlate with what actually happens in real-life situations i. Researchers are most concerned with
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