Chapter 4 - I Chapter 4 How Do We Misinterpret Common...

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1.6.3 Chapter 4 – How Do We Misinterpret? Common Threats to Validity I) People Are Different a. Individual Differences (threat to internal validity) i. Pseudo-experiment (false experiment) – someone tests a claim about a variable by exposing people to it to see if they react in a predictable way 1. Problem – people themselves are unpredictable so they pose as a confound. You need a control group to see if the IV affected anything 2. Solution – use large groups and random sampling/assignment and use “within-subjects” or “repeated measures” – participants participate unknowingly with or without the IV b. Selection Bias and Non-response Bias (threat to external validity) i. Selection Bias – using imperfect sampling techniques such as only sampling a certain group from the population ii. Non-response Bias – one is only getting responses from those subjects who wish to respond and those who don’t might still be vital to the results 1. Big problem with psychological studies is that most are conducted on college students II) People Change a. History and Maturation (threat to internal validity in pre/post testing) i. History – changes in cultures ii. Maturation – changes in individuals or specific age groups 1. Solution – perform a “true experiment” – having one group have the IV and the other not
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Chapter 4 - I Chapter 4 How Do We Misinterpret Common...

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