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HD 115 Chapter 8

HD 115 Chapter 8 - HD 115 Chapter 8 Physical Development in...

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HD 115 Chapter 8 Physical Development in Early Childhood (E.C.) Body Growth - On avg, kids add 2-3 inches and 5 lbs of weight each year - Individual differences in body size are more apparent during E.C. - Growth norms for one culture cannot be generalized 2 children elsewhere o Efe ppl in the Congo: adults are usually less than 5 feet tall o Their small size evolved out of a need 2 reduce caloric requirement in face of food scarcity and hot/humid rainforests Skeletal Growth - New epiphyses emerge - By end of preschool years kids start losing their primary teeth; this age is influenced strongly by genetic factors; girls lose em sooner - Dental care is important; diseased baby teeth can affect health of permanent teeth - Childhood tooth decay remains high, especially in low-SES kids; 40% of NA 5 year olds have some tooth decay - Poor diet & healthcare practices are responsible Asynchronies in Physical Growth - Physical growth is asynchronous - Body size and oranges follow the general growth curve: involves rapid growth in infancy, slower gains in early/middle childhood and rapid growth again in adolescence Brain Development - B/w 2 and 6, brain grows from 70 to 90% of its adult weight - Brain is also reshaped & refined - Mad synapses supports plasticity; as structures of stimulated neurons become elaborate, plasticity ↓ - Rapid growth from 3 – 6 in areas devoted 2 attention and planning/organizing behavior - Language skills increase at a mad fast pace whereas spatial skills dev gradually over childhood & adolescence - Differences in dev rate indicate the hemispheres are continuing 2 lateralize Handedness - 95% of 5 year olds prefer 1 hand over the other - Strong hand preference reflects greater capacity of 1 side of brain ( The dominant cerebral hemisphere ) 2 carry out skilled motor action - Brains of left handed ppl tend 2 be less strongly lateralized than those of right handers - Is handedness hereditary? → Researchers disagree - Research confirms experience can profoundly affect handedness; twins are more likely than ordinary siblings to differ in handedness - Practice also affects hand preference - Left handedness is associated w/ prenatal & birth difficulties that can result in BD - Unusual lateralization can have advantages; more even distribution of cognitive functions across hemispheres is responsible Other Advances in Brain Development - Cerebellum: aids in balance and control of body movement -
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