Untitleddocument-15 - Kelsea Rindler U.S History since...

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Unformatted text preview: Kelsea Rindler U.S. History since 1865-­1025 Unit 5 Writing Assignment 1.) The road to rock bottom ostensibly began with the stock market crash on Black Thursday, October 24, 1929. Discuss the causes of the Great Depression and how the Hoover administration responded to the developing crisis. Then turn to Franklin Delano Roosevelt and the New Deal. Historians sometimes characterize FDR's program as one of relief, recovery, and reform. Discuss the problems that FDR encountered when he took office and the evolution of the New Deal down through the end of his first term. The so-­called Second New Deal began after FDR's and the Democrat's Congressional landslide in 1934. Discuss what factors lay behind the Second New Deal, what did it accomplish, and what did it fail to accomplish? In your final analysis, discuss how the New Deal in all its aspects altered American life. There were many different factors that led to what we know as The Great Depression, but it started with the Stock Market Crash. There was extreme prosperity in the 1920’s and prices were steadily rising. The stock market values were at 27 billion dollars. About 9 million Americans were playing the stock market at the time, but they were borrowing most of what the stock was worth. The idea of margin buying also existed. This was the use of credit which allowed stockbrokers to lend speculators up to 75 percent of the stock’s actual cost. On Black Thursday, October 24, 1929, there was an unexpected volume of selling on Wall Street and the stock prices plunged. On what was known as Black Tuesday, October 29, 1929, the bottom fell as millions of investors ordered their brokers to sell, when there were no buyers to be found at all. From this day on the stock market just continued to decline. Another factor that led to the Great Depression included the uneven distribution of income. Wages were barely rising compared to the rise in production and corporate profits. The top 5 percent of the richest people at the time, received a third of the income. The Excessive Use of Credit also didn’t help the cause. It was brought on by the increasing desire for material things or goods. This also led to the overproduction of Consumer goods because interests of the people were elsewhere. The Weak Farm Economy didn’t help at all, either. Farmers suffered from the high debts that were going around and low cost for the products that they sold. The severe weather and long drought killed their production as well. Another major thing that led to the depression was the government policies and the global economic problems at the time. The government had high faith in businesses so they did little to control them. High tariffs were what protected U.S. industries but this also severely hurt farmers. After World War One, America faced high debts and ultimately led to the worldwide depression. President Hoover believed that the prosperity would return. He urged for voluntary action and restraint, telling businesses to cut wages, unions to not go on strike, and private charities to increase their efforts. He believed that relief should come from state and local governments, and not just the federal government. Hoover set the highest set tax in 1930. It was considered to be one of Hoover’s worst mistakes because it led deeper into the depression. Hoover finally decided it was time for government intervention but it was a little too late at this point. The Reconstruction Finance Corporation funded faltering institutions and industries. Farmers tried to band together to prevent more loss and outbreaks such as the Bonus March made many Americans believe Hoover to be heartless and uncaring. Roosevelt was brought into office in the election of 1932 and created a “New Deal” for the citizens of America that included the repeal of prohibition, aid for the unemployed, and cuts in government spending. Roosevelt expanded the federal government and was said to have greatly enlarged the powers of presidency as a whole. The First New Deal had some major goals and some used the three “R”s to express them. Relief for people out of work, recovery for business and the economy as a whole, and reform of the American economic institutions. Roosevelt called Congress into a hundred day long special session. At this time, Congress passed every law request by the president. Roosevelt also created the bank holiday which required all banks to close for a holiday on March 6. The banks would reopen allowing the government enough time to reorganize them on a sound basis, known as the Emergency Banking Act. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation guaranteed individual bank deposits up to five thousand dollars. There were also corporations that helped prevent house foreclosures and agreements on farms as well with lower interests and help to prevent foreclosures as well. Essentially, the New Deal was a much more organized way to help dig America out of the Depression and stay financially under control. This heavily included the citizens and not just the government. There were many critics/oppositions of the New Deal from all types including liberals, conservatives, and even some political leaders. In 1935, The Second News Deal took place. This one largely focused on relief and reform. The Second New Deal included Relief programs such as the works progress administration, which provided money to provide people with jobs, The national youth administration which provided part time jobs to help the young stay in school until they could get a job, and the resettlement administration which provided loans to sharecroppers, tenants, and small farmers. It also allowed for decent housing as well. The reform programs consisted of the National labor relations act which guaranteed a worker’s right to join a union and the union’s right to bargain collectively. It also outlawed business practices that were unfair to labor. The wealthy were also taxed more in federal taxes in the New Deal as well. The Social Security Act created a federal insurance program based on the automatic collection of taxes from employees in the working careers. The social security trust fund would then be used to make monthly payments to people retired who were over the age of 65. The election of 1935 was unique in the sense that Roosevelt won for a third time by a landslide. This is believed to be because of the changing opinions of the New Deal’s support, which drew many new democrats including almost the entire African American population and any rural farmers. Both groups were significantly aided by the New Deal’s measures, however, the New Deal would meet it’s end after harsh oppositions continued after the recession at the time. Opposition came from every angle and grew steadily with Congress. In order to keep voters, Roosevelt suspended the New Deal plans which ultimately ended the era of progressive style changes. 2.) World War II, the second phase of the Thirty-­Years War, evolved in the 1930s and culminated in 1945 with perhaps 45 to 55 million people dead around the world, depending on how you count. Compare and contrast how the U.S. entered with this war and World War I. What were the similarities and what were the differences? Then look at American policy and strategy for fighting the war in conjunction with its allies. How were problems within the alliance resolved in such a way that the Allies finally won? What were the chief campaigns that finally brought victory? And how did the war alter life on the home front? America’s involvement with World War Two began in a slightly different way that it did with World War One. They were similar in the case of allies and even anti-­war opposition by a majority of the population but still differed a lot as well. The war officially began in Europe. Roosevelt was still very against the war, however he wasn’t too naive and tried to preach democracy and peace to the belligerent forces in Europe at the time, a lot like Wilson in World War One. Roosevelt though, instead resisted war but did prepare for conflict by taking out a 1.3 billion dollar defense budget and initiated the production of airplanes (preparing for war). As the war progressed in Europe, the U.S. was met with more and more pressure for support from their allies such as Great Britain who had suffered greatly at the hands of the German fire bombing blitzkrieg. When the U.S. finally did enter into this war, it was because of the personal attack of the Japanese on U.S. soil: the bombing of Pearl Harbor. One comparison of the U.S. troops in both wars, was their conditions and tactics used. They all experienced fatigue and even stress and had to figure out ways to endure these elements of war. An example of this was the troops in Europe that went three weeks with minimal rest, and the troops usually on both fronts had to sleep on the hard ground. The European troop’s uniforms’ were said to be slick and dirty and in the Pacific the troops trecked through rain and came soaked. A major difference between the two wars though, was the demographics: the environment. In the Pacific, the troops normally fought in the mud surrounded by nature, trees, and grasses. In Europe, most soldiers fought in cities, from street to street, near homes, churches, and buildings that were demolished and burned. The weapons used in both wars differed. The Weapons used in the second world war were obviously a little more advanced as well. As America mobilized for war, and organized for victory, they had joint chief’s of staff which consisted of the army, the navy, and the air force who were all used to direct defense. They had a strategic board and a war production board who allocated materials, limited the production of civilian goods, and distributed contracts among manufacturers. The war manpower commission supervised the mobilization of men and women for the military, agriculture, and industries in America. The National War Labor Board was created to mediate disputes between management and labor, which was an organized way to keep workers happy. There was also an office of mobilization which was an organized way to distribute war supplies and transportation. By 1942, a third of the U.S economy was committed to war production. Crude rubber was from Japan but since they could not get anymore, the U.S.became the largest exporter of synthetic rubber helping industry a lot at the time. At the time, we were also considered to be the greatest weapon’s manufacturer as well. With the continuous production of so much industry, the government went hand in hand with business to keep the manufacturing number one and at the top. The concentration of government power deemed the “imperial presidency” a century later and the growing of the military, became known as “military-­industrial complex.” The government did though, spend about 320 billion dollars to defeat the Axis Powers in the war. It had the opposite effect of what it sounds like though. This essentially ended the depression, stimulated an industrial boom created millions of jobs, including women, elderly, teens, impaired, and many others. It also raised real wages by about 50 percent. Taxes did increase after the war, but there were many positive outcomes of the war that had America ecstatic. 3.) Write a review of Valerie J. Matsumoto's title ​Farming the Home Place,​ a book that deals with two central issues -­ immigration and acculturation on the one hand, and the forced Japanese-­American relocations of World War II, on the other. In a nation comprised entirely of immigrants or descendants of immigrants, what do we learn about the process of immigration, assimilation, and acculturation? And what do we learn about the impact of fear, panic and racism within the larger society, particularly in a time of war? In your analysis, to what degree do you think the events analyzed in this book reflect the larger American immigration experience? The American immigration experience during the time of World War two, was to be an experience of great triumph along with despair at the same time. Many people beyond this time faced resentment from racism to the changing details and cultural stereotypes. The hostility that the Japanese immigrants faced is identical to many other immigrant groups from Asia. They were considered the “yellow peril” or as we know the white American’s fear of losing jobs to illegal Asian immigrants and the hatred to anything “un American” or foreign at the time took place in a time of national pride. This anti-­immigrant racism, we still see today with Mexico, but on a much different scale. The same fears still exist but it is now molded into a system for justifying that racism in some areas. The Japanese immigrants are called Issue and Nisei and they settle in an area known as Merced County located in northern California in towns such as Cortez and Livingston. In these towns, there are a mix of different immigrant groups that immigrated at the time. According to Farming the Home Place, ​most of the segregation existed between the whites and the hard working Japanese, who are excellent farmers and ended up teaching their techniques to the whites. The whites, in return, aimed to isolate these communities of immigrants at the time, while trying to push these groups into Christianity and “basic” American customs. At the same time, however, the whites didn’t want the Japanese community to become completely acculturated with the American society because they didn’t want them to develop a sense of belonging. Issei and Nisei display an amazing determination and natural intelligence that went beyond many of the immigrant groups in history according to this. They were considered to be very humble and took life seriously, not taking anything for granted, and were motivated by the work hard for your entire life for (the children). The Issue and Nisei in the various towns in the area quickly established meeting spots in communities such as centers and beautiful churches both used as a way to come together and enjoy everyone’s company because they were so far away from home. It was their way of keeping their culture alive. The Japanese internment seemed like a simple decision for the U.S. government. In 1919, against the long history of anti-­Asian nativism, these groups of Japanese families established the Cortez Colony. The conflicts were portrayed as the obstacle of colonists responded to these challenges of settlements and setbacks of the Great Depression during the time, as well as the hardships of world War Two and the opportunities that were brought after the war in postwar reconstruction. Tracing the evolution of gender and family roles of members of Cortez as well as their culture, religious beliefs and educational institutions, Matsumoto documents the persistence and flexibility of the ethnic community and demonstrates its range of meaning from a geographic standpoint and a web of the social relations to the state of mind of these citizens at the time as they face a new world in their mind. 4.) Identify and explain the significance of five of the following ten items: a.) The Dust Bowl b.)The Jazz Singer c.) Frances Perkins d.)"The Hundred Days" e.)Reconstruction Finance Corporation f.)Code Talkers g.)Rosie the Riveter h.)Yalta Conference i.) A. Philip Randolph j.)The Manhattan Project c.) ​Frances Perkins-­ With women’s rights increasing as well as politics, Frances Perkins, Secretary of Labor, was the first woman cabinet member, and served as a commissioner of New York. This all occurred during Roosevelt’s presidency as his cabinet reflected the New Deal’s diversity. The majority of people supported her appointment while a small minority opposed it due to her gender. She was so significant because she was proof and a sign that times for women in politics and the U.S. were changing majorly. e.) ​Reconstruction Finance Corporation-­ During the election of 1932, at Hoover’s recommendation, Congress created a new agency called the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to make loans to the bank, and other lending institutions. Though this was risky, it had brought in 1.2 billion dollars into the economy by July. It also granted 2 billion dollars to in state and local governments for public works which created many jobs for citizens, and it also allocated 750 million dollars for loans to struggling businesses in the economy. It’s significance is clear as it was successfully in helping the economy to extremes as well as create jobs for citizens as well. g.) ​Rosie the Riveter-­ After the war, hard times were not over for U.S. society. Divorce, job availability, and wages were down again, as well as the way women were viewed. Towards the Pacific Coast, more than one-­third of all workers in the aircraft and shipbuilding industry, were women. Rosie the Riveter, holding a pneumatic gun with her huge muscles, became a symbol of the ideal woman war worker at this time. From the words from an actual song, she was “making history working for victory.” She was so significant because she as a symbol and as a woman showed other woman to fight for their rights and for their country. She essentially showed them that just like she as one person could help make a difference, so could they. It didn’t matter that they were women. Times were changing. h.)​ Yalta Conference-­ ​The Yalta Conference took place around World War Two, when President Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin made important decisions regarding the future of the war and the post war world. It set the division of Germany, got Stalin to declare war on Japan, stated former governments would be re-­established, and Stalin agreed to join the UN on the provision of the security council, which meant that the big five would have the ending vote. It was also the last conference of war for President Roosevelt followed by Potsdam. It was also significant because it indirectly led to the Cold War. i.) ​A. Philip Randolph-­ In 1942, a new civil rights organization was created by the Congress of Racial Equality. A. Philip Randolph was shooting for the proposal of non-­violent direct action when it came to racism at this time, especially in the work place. He was the president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. In 1941, he called for a “thundering march” of one hundred thousand blacks on Washington if the president did not end discrimination in the armed services and in the defense industry. Randolph is so significant, because he also fought for his rights and the rights of millions of others in the U.S. He is also significant because it worked. FDR agreed to compromise. ...
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