Unformatted text preview: Kelsea Rindler U.S. History 1025 Unit 4 Writing Assignment 1. The last quarter of the nineteenth century brought a slow but perceptible change in American foreign policy. Discuss how that change developed down through the end of the Spanish-‐American War. Then trace the development of American foreign policy though the administrations of Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson (to 1917). What assumptions and objectives lay behind their decisions? How did their foreign policies differ in focus? In the last quarter of the late nineteenth century, the foreign policy of the U.S had grown from a simple business idea, in attempt to control the rise of global power with military force who were capable of dominating the world at the time. They were also powerful in the sense that they were capable of controlling international trade through specific countries such as China. Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson were all considered progressive reformers who all had foreign policies that were comparable to one another in their terms. Starting with Roosevelt’s term, his foreign policy was known as the “Big Stick Policy,” and it played a huge role in the success of the U.S. at the time. This is why it is so significant. Throughout his term, he made many events successful such as the building of the Panama Canal, building a military force, and the call to arms for America’s youth. In 1900, the U.S. sent troops in to beat the Boxer Rebellion which took place in China. The Boxer Rebellion was an anti-‐foreign movement held by the Righteous Harmony Society in China. Roosevelt’s belief held that American’s were much more superior when it came to economic and political affairs and that is how he went about them too in a sense. All of the leaders, Roosevelt, Wilson and Taft held similar policies, but Taft’s foreign policy was known as the “Dollar Diplomacy.” His main focus was to expand opportunities for corporate investments that occurred overseas. Under Roosevelt and James Hay, secretary of state, issued a series of what was known as the open door notes in 1900. His first Open Door Policy enforced open trading in all parts of China for all countries. Soon after the policy became legitimate, Roosevelt began the construction of the Panama Canal in 1906. Fifteen years later, the first ship sailed through this Canal. People saw it as a masterpiece that Roosevelt created because it extended and helped with trade immensely. It was also considered a huge achievement for the U.S. and it shadowed Latin America and U.S. relation for years, even years and years after it was created. This essentially led to the rise of anti-‐American revolts in Mexico which created huge chaos for the border states. President Wilson sent seven thousand troops to fight the Mexican forces that were occurring at the time. Unfortunately this conflict went on for several years but finally ended in 1920. 2. World War I, or the Great War, was the opening phase of what historians increasingly refer to as the Second Thirty-‐Years War. It was a great watershed in American foreign policy -‐ the first time that American soldiers were sent in massive numbers to fight on another continent. Discuss American participation in the war -‐ the path of entry, the struggle on the western front, and the effect of the conflict on the home front. Then discuss the basis of Wilson's peace plan and the ultimate result. In the final analysis, how did the Great War reshape American life? Many events can cause a war but in the case of World War One, it was the killings of political leaders in Austria-‐Hungary, Russia and Spain and even President McKinley's assassination sparked some tension. The main spark though was the Austria-‐Hungarian Heir to the throne’s assassination, which led Europe into war. The U.S, under President Woodrow Wilson intended to stay out of such conflict occurring at the time, because in the eyes of many Americans, it had nothing to do with them at this time. In 1917, however German submarines had attacked U.S. ships and the German government encouraged Mexico to invade the U.S. This enraged U.S. public opinion and Wilson was put in a position to ask Congress to finally declare war. American resources and manpower changed the current Central Powers which had belonged to Germany and Austria-‐Hungary and in 1918, what everyone had called “The Great War,” had finally come to an end. After the war, more than 9 million men were declared dead and twice as many wounded. As troops began to return home, they also carried disease from around the world home with them. It was estimated that 50 million people died. Many of the now-‐familiar political boundaries in Europe and the Middle East still currently reflect the peace settlements that had followed the war. This resulted in a decrease in size for Russia and Germany and sparked the great multinational empires of Austria-‐Hungary and the Ottomans. An effect of the war also include new countries with names such as Yugoslavia and Iraq. What was harder to mend, was the long-‐term consequences of the war. This included political, social, and moral consequences. The consequences honestly changed every country that had participated in the war. Governments had automatically assumed a greater control over their societies and had never really entirely fixed it. Old regimes had been destroyed and were eventually replaced by new political orders. In Russia, for instance, Czarist autocracy was succeeded by communism which resulted in huge consequences for the rest of the century. The destructiveness of the war also created major issues for some as well. Some of these issues, we still face today, but this consequence also spread new political ideas. President Wilson preached about national self-‐determination and creating a safe world for democracy. He wanted a League of Nations as the basis for international cooperation for all of the countries worldwide. Russia suggested an alternative that included a world without borders or classes. The competing visions helped start the Cold War. In 1918, President Wilson gave one of his most famous speeches, know as the Fourteen Points. The Fourteen Points outlined fourteen elements that Wilson felt were essential to a peace that would last. It is said that it was delivered to establish moral goals specifically for American Participation in World War I. Wilson also hoped this speech would encourage the Central powers to end all of the hostilities that were still in play. His plan actually initially backfired as the German Army actually intensified their efforts on the European western Front. After ten months though, they conceded and agreed to Wilson as he began a series of peace talks that were based on his Fourteen Points. Of the 14 points that Wilson argued, eight consisted of specific geopolitical issues that really needed to be resolved after the war, while the remaining 6 points dealt generally with the ideology that was necessary to keep the peace. The most significant point included the freedom of the seas, an end to secret treaties/negotiations, the establishment of free and equal trade, the reduction of arms and forces, welcoming the new Soviet Russia into the the international community, granting self-‐government, independence for Turkey and Poland, and lastly establishing a group of nations to ensure the freedom and peace for all people in the world. These were not only points but also some results of the war. Wilson’s points were significant for several different reasons. One being the fact that no major world leader had ever declared such “lofty” war goals and objectives for simply establishing peace for everyone. Wilson referred to his vision as “peace without victory.” Secondly, his points were based directly on a sense of morality and righteousness which was very unlike the desire for war spoils. His idea did not include the punishment of Germany who essentially started the war or include taking land or money from anyone. The 14 points were also based on a sense of liberalism which was new to international politics. The greatest of the points, which some would argue was the largest significance, was the fact that they called for cooperation in order to secure and keep true peace among the world. In an attempt to ensure such a renewed conflict would not occur, Wilson proposed that the nations of the world–including Germany–create a forum called the League of Nations which allowed the nations to express their grievances in a safe way instead of inflicting conflict or war. The great-‐war reshaped American life in a few significant ways. One of these ways was that more employment opportunities opened up as well as rights for women and African Americans. Factory occupations were now an option for women as well, as they also gained the right to vote shortly after the war. Another positive impact was that as employment opportunity went up, unemployment went down as industry “boomed.” Factories that were specifically working for the war were now successful in making and producing their own items. In many people’s eyes at the time, America was on the rise again economically and politically, and were very optimistic after they faced this hard time and several different consequences. 3. The Roaring Twenties began with a severe reaction to the war and the ardent progressivism of the Wilson years. What programs, policies, and commitments marked the domestic and foreign policies of the Harding and Coolidge administrations? In your analysis, discuss to what extent the policies of these two administrations were a reaction to progressivism. After the war in the 1920’s, there was a recession that took away wartime bonds and sent veterans back into the normal job market. This resulted in the creation of new appliances, personal goods, hydroelectric water plants, and a huge spread in the popularity of automobiles. All of these huge achievements combined created a big business or economic “boom” which impacted everything from global markets to outsourcing and purchasing several foreign factories. Large corporations were finding their niche globally and goods such as the automobile became very popular. However, America still wanted to show its superiority along with other powers it obtained by placing high tariff barriers which resulted in hindering foreign trade to benefit domestic manufacturers. New methods of mass production in goods allowed for a huge supply of material goods in typical American households. Farmers, however were not really receiving the benefit of the doubt. Grain prices skyrocketed as there was no longer a demand for them from the government for soldier rations. With new innovations in farming equipment, this really hurt farmers at the time, because their boost in production sent prices even further down. These all were situations that took place under Harding and Coolidge. Under Harding, there was a bland Republican appealing after the war and Wilson’s term. He tried to return things to the way he felt was “normal.” This resulted in scandals such as Interior Secretary Fall went to jail for leasing government oil reserves. There was another in Teapot Dome and Wyoming all for bribes. Harding was all for the simpler times. He felt that the progressive era was much too complicated so he returned to Laissez-‐Faire in a sense. He felt that the progressivism and the legislation of it was “un-‐American” and that it hurt our industrial capacity. Coolidge had much to do with policies and events with this era as well. He lowered income taxes and inheritance taxes for the wealthy. He also had a theory called the “Trickle Down” theory which consisted of tax cuts for the wealthy which he felt would promote businesses, investments, stimulate the economy, and overall benefit everyone. Coolidge actually refused to help the flood victims in 1927 which also kind of caused an uproar. During his term, and the many things he succeeded in in his career, he vetoed the McNary-‐Haugen bill. This was a price-‐support plan which the government would annually buy the surplus of cotton, corn, rice, hogs, tobacco, and wheat at their average prices. This bill was passed by Congress twice but vetoed by Coolidge. Another significant event that took place during Coolidge’s term was Independent Internationalism. The U.S. refused to join League or World Court as the Washington Naval Arms Conference took place during this time. This set a specific amount of ships among the world’s naval powers and the U.S. and Japan agreed to respect the territorial holding in the Pacific which was considered a major agreement. This showed effort for the control of arms. The Kellogg-‐Briand Pact occurred in 1928 which consisted of the U.S., France, and eventually 60 other nations that joined. This pact renounced the aggression and called for the outlaw of war. There was no enforcement but the U.S. wanted repayment of 22 billion dollars in war debts and reparations. The election of 1924 was also a huge event that took place at this time. The Democratic split between the north and the south resulted in the nomination of John W. Davis though Coolidge won by a landslide. The Women’s Joint Congressional Committee seeked for child-‐labor laws, the protection of women workers, and federal support for education. They also backed the Sheppard-‐Towner Act which funded rural prenatal and baby-‐care centers which were staffed by the public and health nurses. In result, the 19th amendment had little effect as younger women ridiculed feminists. As the U.S. continued to consume more goods, great advancements took place in marketing and business organizations with separate divisions of product development, personal relations, and customer relations. The government remained overwhelmingly conservative as the voters elected to keep control and stability as the times they were facing were considered radical social reform. Harding was elected president in 1920, and was a strong headed Senator (for Ohio) whose cabinet instantly came into question. They were subject to a number of scandals which as said before regarded the stealing of Veteran Funds. Harding suffered a heart attack and that is how Coolidge was sworn in as he was the vice-‐president at the time. Coolidge did have more of a calm demeanor about him and was one of the first presidents to use the power of the radio in American homes as he spoke to the people. He wasn’t a fan of government intervention and clearly struggled in dealing with the flood of the Mississippi as he refused to help. This flood caused the destruction of many farms and houses all the way from the states of Illinois to New Orleans. 4. Perhaps its most famous aspects of the Jazz Age where the emphasis on business and the new consumerism -‐ notably the love affair with the automobile -‐ coupled with the remarkable "new" social developments that altered American life in many ways. Discuss these sensational changes. In the final analysis, to what degree did the Jazz Age change the social contours of American life? As an American society was facing these huge changes, the boom in consumer goods allowed people to learn more about each other and learn to appreciate music, art and famous people who paved the way in what became the rise of youth culture. Entertainment that was mass produced started to pour into American everyday culture with the use of the radio and popular journalism. Celebrity culture came from the glorification of music, sports, and radio stars which were promoted everywhere along with the growing persuasive threat of advertising. Young culture became the voice of the post war era formalities which changed so much along with sex appeal, dress styles, and the new free form style of music that was called Jazz. Jazz music captured the heart of many rebellious youth at the time. The Harlem Renaissance was a collection of incredible writers, poets, and artists, and musicians which sent America as a whole into a brand new age of entertainment what people considered art in many different forms at the time. Entertainment, though, became so popular at this time and the boom of jazz that the first movie with sound was actually called The Jazz Singer which came out in 1927. Mass marketing in businesses grew as entertainment grew more popular in American society. The Jazz Age exemplified the culture of Americans at the time and was full of well-‐known people. F. Scott Fitzgerald was one, and to this day we still know him through many of his great books that have even become movies such as The Great Gatsby. He captured a part of the postwar scene, especially the urban mass culture which had become so different from the Progressive era. The Harlem Renaissance was considered a literary movement, above all at this time. It actually offered sensuality, eroticism, and escape from taboos which consisted of prostitutes, speakeasies, and cocaine. This whole event ended with the start market crash in 1929 and the Great Depression. However, this was a monumental moment to black culture creativity. Another part of the Jazz Age, also included advancements in architecture such as skyscrapers, and some incredibly unique artists. Most importantly though, the Jazz era consisted of Jazz (music)!! Jazz was a creative way for African Americans to express their struggles that they had faced over the years and even were still facing with discrimination that was still very much present in America. It is said that Jazz survived even when the rest of the 1920s culture faded. This shows the great significance that this creative entertainment had on America. It consisted of so many different cultures in itself that has still lived on even to this day. As society grew in Jazz culture, advancements in science and medicine also took place after the war. Nuclear physicist Arthur Compton won a Nobel Prize in 1927 for his work with x-‐rays. Dramatic advances were also made in neurosurgery and vaccines or solutions were conquered for diseases such as diphtheria, whooping cough, measles, and influenza at the time. 5. Identify and give the significance of five of the following ten items? a.
j. Dollar Diplomacy Open Door Notes Lusitania incident The Fourteen Points The Great Red Scare KDKA Flappers Prohibition The Scopes Trial Harlem Renaissance b.) Open Door Notes- The Open door notes occurred after the Boxer Rebellion was defeated which weakened China’s government even further. The Open Door Notes issued by Hays on 1900, reaffirmed the principle of open trade in China for all nations and announced America’s determination to preserve administrative and territorial integrity for China. They aimed to secure international agreement to the U.S. policy which promoted equal opportunity for international trade and commerce in China, and respect for China’s administrative and territorial integrity.The Open Door Notes were significant for our history because in the 1930s, when the Japanese expansion menaced China, this policy helped shape America’s response. d.) The Fourteen Points- In 1918, Wilson addressed Congress, summing up U.S. war aims in fourteen points. Eight of them promist the subject people of the Austro Hungarian and Ottoman Empires the right of self-‐determination, which is simply the right to choose their own political features. The ninth point insisted that imperial disputes should be considered in the interests of the colonized people. The last five points gave Wilson’s larger postwar vision, which consisted of a world of free navigation, free trade, reduced armaments, openly negotiated treaties, and “a generalized association of nations” to resolve conflict peacefully. The Fourteen Points were so significant in American history because they solidified American support for the war, especially from the liberals. It showed that America was fighting for noble motives, and not just selfish aims. e.) The Great Red Sca...
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