09-11-07 Effective Speaking Ch. 7 Summary1.) A speech is experienced in space and time, and speakers must be sensitive to both the place in which they’re speaking and how their listeners manage the unfolding of a speech in time2.) Speakers help listeners comprehend speeches as they develop paradigmatically and associatively3.) Paradigms are kinds of patterns or templates that are known and understood by people; some are speech-centered (based on ways people have been taught to understand ideas) and some are audience-centered (based on ways people habitually process new ideas psychologically)4.) Associations are connections asserted between two or more parts of an utterance or speech, and three sorts of associative devices are especially useful to listeners: (a) forecasts or previews, (b) summarizes, and (c) signposts5.) Four speech-centered types of paradigms are chronological, spatial, causal (effect-cause and cause-effect), and topical organizational patterns6.) The five audience-centered paradigms of organization are familiarity-acceptance, inquiry, question-
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