HD 115 Chapter 9 - HD 115 Chapter 9 Cognitive Development...

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HD 115 Chapter 9 Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Piaget’s Theory: The Preoperational Stage - Spans the years of 2 – 7; most obvious change is the ↑ in mental representation Advances in Mental Representation - Language is our most flexible means of mental representation, but Piaget didn’t believe it plays a major role in cog dev - Theorists regard his account of the link b/w language & thought as incomplete Make-Believe Play - This is an excellent example of the dev of representation during early childhood Development of Make-Believe Play - 3 important advances o Play increasingly detaches from real-life conditions associated w/ it Kids younger than 2 only use realistic objects in pretending; after 2 they start 2 pretend w/ less realistic toys o Play becomes less self-centered Children direct pretend actions toward actions o Play gradually includes more complex combos of schemes Kids eventually combine their schemes w/ those of peers in sociodramatic play : make believe play that is underway by age 2.5 and ↑ quickly during next few years - Appearance of sociodramatic play signals big change; kids display their awareness that make-believe is a representational activity Benefits of MB Play - Play reflects & contributes 2 kids cognitive & social skills - During social pretend play, interactions last longer, show more involvement, are more cooperative - Kids who spend more time at sociodramatic play are seen as more socially competent by teachers - Studies indicate MB play strengthens mad mental abilities (i.e. creativity, imagination, etc) Symbol – Real World Relations - Younger kids (less than 3) had trouble w/ dual representation: viewing a symbolic object as both an object (in its own right) and a symbol - 2 year olds do not grasp that a drawing represents real world objects - Adult teaching can help kids get the idea of dual representation of models Limitations of Preoperational Thought - Piaget described preschool kids in terms of what they cannot understand; according 2 him, they are not capable of operations (mental representations of actions that obey logical rules) - Rather, their thinking is rigid, limited 2 1 aspect of a situation at a time, and influenced by the way things appear at the moment Egocentric & Animistic Thinking - Most serious deficiency is egocentrism: the failure 2 distinguish the viewpoints of others from their own o Thus, they often assume others perceive, think, & feel the way they do o E.g. the 3 mountains problem - This is responsible 4 kids animistic thinking (belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities such as thought, wishes, feelings, & intentions Inability to Conserve - Conservation is the idea that certain physical characteristics are the same regardless if the outward physical appearance changes o i.e. Pennies, Liquid - Kids inability 2 conserve highlights the fact that their understanding is centered o They focus on 1 aspect of a situation neglecting other important features - Kids also are easily distracted by perceptual disappearance - They the initial and final states as unrelated, ignoring the dynamic transformation b/w them
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