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note card 2 - Test#1 NOTE CARD Chapter 1 Characteristics of...

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Test #1 NOTE CARD! Chapter 1: Characteristics of motor development include change in movement behavior, sequential, age-related, continuous. Motor learning : relatively permanent gains in motor skill capability associated with practice or experience Motor control : the neural, physical, and behavioral aspects of movement Physical growth : quantitative increase in size or body mass Physical maturation : qualitative advance in biological makeup —Ie. Cell, organ Aging : process occurring with the passage of time, leading to loss of adaptability or full function and eventually to death. Constraints : Limit or discourage certain movements at the same time that they permit or encourage other movements – “shape” movement Indv. Constraints : exist within the body Structural Constraints : related to the body’s structure—Ie. Hight, muscle mass Functional constraints : related to behavioral function – Ie. Motivation, attention Environmental constraints : Exist outside the body (properties of the world around us) and they can be global but NOT task specific. It may be Physical Ie. Gravity, surfaces or sociocultural – Ie. Gender roles. Task Constraints : External to the body. Related specifically to task or skills. – Ie. Goal of task, rules, or equipment. Studies in development : Longitudina - An individual or a group is observed over time and they can require lengthy observation time. Cross-Sectional - Individuals or groups of different ages are observed. Change is inferred, not actually observed. Sequential, or Mixed Longitudinal - Involves mini-longitudinal studies with overlapping ages. Universality - Individuals in a species show great similarity in their development. Variability - Individual differences exist. Chapter 2: Theories of motor development Maturational perspectives - Maturation of different systems (especially the nervous system) drives motor development. Environment has little influence. Markers of motor development are qualitative and discontinuous events. History - 1930s: McGraw -There is an invariable, genetically determined sequence of development, but an individual can have unique timing. Used co-twin control strategy. McGraw associated changes in motor behavior with development of the nervous system. Advancement in the central nervous system triggered the appearance of a new skill. Long term influences of theory - Resulted in long-lasting beliefs or stereotypes. Ie. Basic motor skills will emerge automatically. There is no need for special training.Mild deprivation does not arrest development. The nervous system is the most important system. Information processing: Bandura’s social learning, Skinner’s behaviorism. -> Basic tenet: the brain is like a complex computer. Ie.
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