psychology notes 3

Psychology notes 3 - Motivation and emotion 12:52:00 PM Lecture outline what is motivation General theories of motivation basic human motives

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Motivation and emotion 19/10/2007 12:52:00 Lecture outline: what is motivation? General theories of motivation, basic human motives, social human motives, esteem motives What is motivation Motive: an impulse, desire or need that leads to an action Motivation: involves the processes that give behavior its direction and energy o Is concerned with why and how behavior occurs General theories of motivation Drive theory o Drive: internal state of physiological tension we seek to reduce o Originally used to explain biological functions Food deprivation hunger (drive) eating drive reduction o Cannot explain why people: Do things in absence of tension Ex: do we eat only when we are hungry Do things that increase tension Ex: Skydiving, watch horror films Arousal theory o We seek to achieve and maintain optimum level of bodily arousal Not too much or too little of tension, balance. o Studies done on sensory restriction studies
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o Sensory overload studies Incentive theory o We behave in ways that produce a valued inducement Grades, money, respect, relief from pain, ice cream o Expectation, value highlight cognitive component Basic human motives Hunger and eating: o Controlled by complex interaction of biological and environmental factors Psychological influences o Stress o Food familiarity o Social influences Overweight/obesity o Current trends in eating, activity, habits Basic human motive Sexual activity o Freud’s influence o Vital to survival of species, not individual o Surveys of sexual practices Kinsey, 1 st large-scale study in US in 1940s Results were shocking at time ~90% men, ~50% women had premarital sex ~50% married man, ~25% married women had affairs ~40% college educated couples had oral sex Problems of self report Would you say you had sex with someone if the most intimate behavior you engaged in was…?
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Activity % yes Deep kissing 2% Oral contact with breasts 3% Touching genitals 14% Oral contact with genitals 40% Anal intercourse 81% Vaginal intercourse 99% Social human motives Belongingness o Need for affiliation Individual differences but trends for all Times of celebration Times of stress o Need for intimacy Key element is self disclosure More intimate, less lying Strangers 65 Acquaintances 45 Friends 25 Family 20 Romantic partners 30 Spouses 10 Esteem motives Achievement o Research on need for achievement (NA) Compared to low NA, high NA: Work harder, more persistently Better able to delay gratification More career success Take moderate risks
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Motivation and Emotion 19/10/2007 12:52:00 Lecture outline: motivation – sexual identity, emotion – components and general theories Motivation: Sexual identity We all have a sexual identity o Sexual orientation or preference Heterosexual (straight) Homosexual (gay, lesbian) Bisexual
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2008 for the course PSY 101 taught by Professor Dan during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Buffalo.

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Psychology notes 3 - Motivation and emotion 12:52:00 PM Lecture outline what is motivation General theories of motivation basic human motives

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