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class notes2 - Consciousness 9/24/2007 12:56:00 PM Lecture...

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Consciousness 24/09/2007 11:56:00 Lecture outline: what is consciousness? altered states of consciousness, sleep – theories of sleep, circadian rhythms, stages of sleep “consciousness is at once the most familiar thing in the world and the most mysterious” david Chalmers what is consciousness? Consciousness: an awareness of internal and external stimuli o Ex: classmate just asked me out… o Content constantly change Altered states of consciousness Hypnosis o An attention focusing state that changes a person’s mental state Meditation o set of techniques design to change your consciousness, bring about a state of quiet mood. Physiology change, lower blood pressure Psychoactive drug effects o Narcotics – bring about a sense of numbness and pain relieving o Sedatives – sedate people and the nervous system, depress nervous system o Stimulants – caffeine, cocaine, stimulate central nervous system, sense of well- being o Hallucinogens – LSB, PCB, see/ picture things that aren’t there o Cannabis - marijuana, alter perceptions, sense of calm o Alcohol Sleep & dreaming
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o Become relatively unaware of your surrounding Theories of sleep Why do we sleep? Various theories… o Restorative theory of sleep Sleep restores depleted resources Excessive exercise more sleep Sleep deprivation fatigue Chronic deprivation “sleep psychosis” 4 plus days Sleepless rats Which of the following animals sleeps the least? Bat Goat, correct answer Human cat o Preservation/ evolutionary theory of sleep Sleep serves adaptive function Conserves energy Reduces exposure to predators Different sleep-wake cycles in different species o Circadian rhythms
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24 hour biological cycles found in humans and many other species influence body temperature, moods ignoring regular sleep wake circadian cycle can have negative effects poor sleep fatigue (tire) irritability poor performance stages of sleep stage 1 o 4-5 % light sleep. Muscle activity slows down. Occasional muscle twitching (hypnic jerks) stage 2 o 45-55%, breathing pattern and heart rate slows. Slight decrease in body temperature. (sleep spindles) Stage 3 o 4-6 % deep sleep begins, brain begins to generate slow deita waves stage 4 o 12-15%, very deep sleep, rhythmic breathing, limited muscle activity. Brain produces deita waves stage 5 o 20-25% rapid eye movement. Brainwaves speed up and dreaming occurs. Muscles relax and heart rate increases. Breathing is rapid and shallow. (REM sleep) during the night, most people repeat the cycle about 4 times people get the most sleep at stage 3 and 4 the sleep cycle in action owl – prefer to stay up later lark – prefer to go to bed earlier
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Consciousness 24/09/2007 11:56:00 Lecture outline: sleep deprivation, sleep disorders, dreams
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Sleep deprivation Partial sleep deprivation (AKA sleep restriction)
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2008 for the course PSY 101 taught by Professor Dan during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Buffalo.

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class notes2 - Consciousness 9/24/2007 12:56:00 PM Lecture...

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