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Unformatted text preview: , do stuff for other people that needs to be done inside the committees they're in, etc. They tend to defer to wisdom of committees. Norm of courtesy - They praise the other side of the aisle (opposite party), while addressing the presiding officer, during the debate. Often more they praise, more they hate each other. In other parliaments the reps yell at each other. Specialization Institutional loyalty Emphasizing legislative work instead of going on talk shows and stuff AND SO MUCH MORE Presidency Commander in chief Head of state Head of govt. Chief legislator Mar. 4 - Congress has expanded and so has the presidency, limited expansion in 19th century, expanded dramatically just in the 20th century. Presidents didn't have large staffs because they didn't need; now they have large staffs and exec branch larger exponentially. Always expected to be powerful in foreign policy, but became more powerful. Theoretically congress has power to stop a "conflict," but never will. Power has expanded in that it is now accepted that presidents can do this. Usually expanding powers means no more formal powers are gained but that they have acted as if they have new powers and everyone else goes along with it, so its almost as if they have new powers. More accurate might be expanded its influence. Congress did pass war powers act to limit 60 days of troop deployment without congress consent, and notification at least 48 hours in advance. War powers act hasn't been used so court hasn't ruled on its constitutionality, so presidents ignore it. What they usually do to bypass it is to say that he can send anyway, but he'd like congress to approve of it and therefore he bypasses it. Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com POL1040ZilNotes1.pdf Page 5 of 10 POL 1040H American Politics Professor Zilber Spring 2003 Notes Entire Semester Another way increase foreign power role: agencies. CIA, FBI, homeland security dept., NSC, NSA, and lots of smaller guys. NSC established officially in 1947, formally includes president, VP, sec of defense, state, treasury, Att. Gen., head of CIA and homeland security. Intelligence gathering, their staffs also included although not actually at the meetings. Most operate in secrecy, including congress. Most of this stuff is for the president only. President much more informed on foreign issues. Until 9-11, congress largely trusted the president. Executive agreements are agreements between executives, as in president and other foreign leaders. Presidents have become more influential through the increased use of executive agreements, esp. in 20th cent in place of treaties. Main diff between two is their name. Senate has to ratify treaties, but not executive agreements. Ronald Reagan had 2837 executive agreements in 8 years, about a third the total number between 1930-1980. Many very minor, transfer small amount of money or exchange students or info. State dept has been negotiating with turkey through executive agreements to use as base for war w/ Iraq. Vietnam started as executive agree...
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This note was uploaded on 02/19/2008 for the course POL 1040 taught by Professor Zilber during the Spring '03 term at Yeshiva.
- Spring '03
- American Politics