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Unformatted text preview: POL 1040H American Politics Professor Zilber Articles of Confederation Spring 2003 Notes Entire Semester Jan 23 Declaration of Independence 1777 Articles of Confederation ratified. Weak central govt.; power to state. No power to force states to comply. No central bank or interstate roads no commerce. Seen as failure. Created during war, so primary purpose as a centralized govt. was as a means of communication during war. Shay's Rebellion rallied forces that were angry about economic conditions but particularly banks and financial centers charging high interest rates (which was due to the unstable govt.). Initially stormed courthouse to stop foreclosures on farms. This was a signal that they need to ? because they couldn't even put down a small rebellion. Constitution institutes federalism. Until 1913, when 17th amendment was ratified, senate was elected by state legislature, not directly by people. Jan 28 Federalists 10 and 51 are most famous. #10 discusses factions, preventing (protecting rights of minorities) potential of tyranny. To ensure no factions you could either outlaw factions or convince everyone to think the same. Former contrary to liberty, latter impractical. Some arguments a little convoluted, so it seems Madison, jay, and Hamilton were stretching to fit their agenda (propaganda essays) Charles Beard, 1913 Economic Interpretation of The Constitution argued framers were self interested no protection for poor or even bill of rights in constitution. Everything was done by elites, all secret: Constitutional Convention Constitution Two ways to propose constitutional amendment 1. Two-thirds vote in each of both houses in congress to propose it. 2. Two-thirds of states request of congress a convention for the purpose of proposing an amendment (never happened). Probably never will happen... constitution doesn't even specify anything about what would happen should this occur. Congress would be very fearful about such a thing happening, because the last time the states made a convention to amend the constitution, they threw it out and wrote a new one. So congress would probably propose first just to prevent this from happening. President has no role at all, not even veto power, in the amendment process. Congress doesn't absolutely have to be involved either, if the second method of proposition is implemented. Amendments specify how they will be ratified usually of states w/in 7 years. Equal rights amendment was failure. Several amendments have expanded the electorate. Downloaded from: www.yumesorah.com POL1040ZilNotes1.pdf Page 1 of 10 POL 1040H American Politics Professor Zilber Spring 2003 Notes Entire Semester 3 different kinds of amendments 1. Limiting power of govt., such as bill of rights. 2. Expanding the electorate (who can vote) 3. Changing the way people are elected or selected into office. Individual members of congress 1. Don't want to change the supreme law of the land 2. Too hard to change 3. Fear of not enough support Federalism Federalism division of power between central govt. and sub-governments...
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- Spring '03
- American Politics