A Review of FOXP3 - A Review of"Single-Cell Analysis of...

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A Review of “Single-Cell Analysis of Normal and FOXP3- Mutant Human T Cells: FOXP3 Expression without Regulatory T Cell Development” Silver Martin Dr. Catherine Cone Cellular and Molecular Biology March 10, 2008
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Introduction The FOXP3 gene is the main regulator in the development of regulatory T cells (T R ) in humans and mice. The gene is part of the family of transcription regulators, and more specifically the forkhead group (1). Genes in this group contain a forkhead box, a sequence of 80 to 100 amino acids forming a motif. Forkhead genes are a subgroup of the helix-turn-helix class of proteins (2). Regulatory T cells are essential to the immune system because they act to suppress the immune system, maintaining immune- homeostasis. Regulatory T cells can present several different glycoproteins CD4, CD8 and CD25 are the studied in this article.(1) CD4 is attached to the surface of T helper cells, regulatory T cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. CD8 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that serves as a co-receptor for the T cell receptor (TCR), and can be found on cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells. (3) Through the expression of the FOXP3 gene CD4 positive/CD25 positive regulatory cell develop as a separate family of CD4 positive T cells with a distinctive purpose. Regulatory T cells have been identified in humans and mice, suggesting that the FOXP3. In humans, mutations of FOXP3 lead to a multisystem autoimmune syndrome known as IPEX or X linked immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy. (4) Regulatory T cell development is a subset of CD4 single positive thymocytes. Also, in humans, CD4 negative/CD25 positive, increased FOXP3 mRNA and protein levels when activated. This suggests that the FOXP3 gene holds a cellular intrinsic role in the regulation of T cell responses. Some individuals show symptoms similar to IPEX but
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A Review of FOXP3 - A Review of"Single-Cell Analysis of...

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