Exam 3 Review - Chapter 9 Objectives Distinguish between...

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Chapter 9 Objectives ; Distinguish between exergonic and endergonic reactions. Exergonic reactions release energy when proceeding; they are characterized by a negative value for Gibb’s Free Energy. Endergonic reactions require energy to proceed; they are characterized by a positive value for Gibb’s Free Energy. ¡ Explain how the hydrolysis of A.T.P. can provide the energy used to drive an endergonic reaction. Identify the input and outputs of glycolysis. L Explain why glycolysis alone results in a net gain of only 2 A.T.P. . : Explain why fermentation is necessary. X Compare the fate of pyruvate in alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation. Key Terms adenosine triphosphate (A.T.P.): adenosine with 3 phosphates linked to each other by phosphoanhydride bonds. Principal energy storing compound of most cells aerobic respiration: exergonic process by which cells oxidize glucose to CO2, and water using oxygen as the ultimate electron acceptor alcoholic fermentation: anaerobic catabolism of carbohydrates to ethanol and carbon dioxide allosteric regulation: control of a reaction pathway by the effector medicated reversible intercoversion of the two forms of an allosteric enzyme anabolic pathway: series of rxns that results in synthesis. Catabolic pathway: series of rxns that results in breakdown. charge repulsion: force driving apart two ions, molecules or regions, of the same electric charge chemotrophic energy metabolism: rxns and pathways by which cells catabolize nutrients, conserving some free energy as A.T.P. coenzyme: small organic molecule that functions along with an enzyme by carrying an electron or functional group dehydrogenation: removal of electrons and protons from an organic molecule, also called oxidation facultative organism: an organism that can function in either aerobic or anaerobic conditions fermentation: partial oxidation of carbs by anaerobic pathways resulting in production of either ethanol and carbon dioxide or lactate. fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (F2,6BP): doubly phosphorylated fructose, plays an important role
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in regulating glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. gluconeogenesis: synthesis of glucose from precursors such as amino acids, glycerol, or lactate, occurs in the liver via a pathway that is essentially the reverse of glycolysis. glucose: a six carbon sugar that is widely used as the starting molecule in cellular metabolism glycolysis (glycolytic pathway): series of rxns by which glucose or some other monosaccharide is catabolized to pyruvate without the involvement of oxygen generating 2 molecules of A.T.P. per molecule of monosaccharide metabolized. group transfer reaction high-energy compound: molecule that possesses one or more bonds whose hydrolysis is highly exergonic hydrogenation: addition of electrons plus hydrogen ions to an organic molecule, reduction. lactate fermentation
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2008 for the course BIOL 4301 taught by Professor Cone during the Spring '08 term at East Texas Baptist University.

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Exam 3 Review - Chapter 9 Objectives Distinguish between...

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