SOC103 FINAL REVIEW (and then you’re done forever)Week 1Starting Points chapter 1Chapter outlineAugust Comte may have invented sociology, could have started with Plato and his Republic. Also could have been a result of the Enlightenment of the 18thcentury. Sociology probably emerged 200 years ago as a response to new social problems that arose from industrialization, urbanization and political revolution. Industrial revolution drew people out into the harsh urban environment and exploitation, economic relationships. The French Revolution convinced people throughout the Western World that new social+political order was possible. Three main people: Marx, Durkheim and Weber. This book is the fusion approach. Modern-day soc is concerned with how we know what we know. Struggle with relationship with the world through symbols, culture and assumptions. Sociology evolved as a way to explain differences and find patterns in behavior. Weber wrote about the rise of Protestantism and how it corresponds with economy. First step was to move social theorizing away from moral philosophy and blame/guilt. To blame is to not understand. Common sense knowledge is not enough. Sociology was to replace common sense with scientific explanation. Ways of looking at…SOCIOLOGY: Macroanalytical approaches are: functional theory, and critical theory. Microanalytical approaches are: Symbolic interactionism, feminist theory, postmodern theory. Functional Theory:Views society as interconnected parts that work together to preserve the overall stability and efficiency of the whole. Robert Merton argued that social institutions perform latent and manifest functions. Manifest are those intended, latent are unintended and hidden. Durkheim argued crime serves manifest and latent functions because it helps establish boundaries for proper behavior and strengthens social solidarity. Latent functions are important because it reminds us all social institutions have a purpose.Functionalists also focus on the failure of institutions to fulfill their role in times of rapid change. Durkheim introduced anomie, or ‘normlessness’ to reflect the conditions typical in times of rapid change in which social norms are in conflict with each other. The best way to deal with social problems is to strengthen social norms and slow the pace of social change. Critical TheoryArises out of the basic division of society’s ‘haves’ and have-nots’. Always about unequal distribution of power-about domination of one group by another.Criticize functional theorists limited attention to power struggle and special interests. Views society as a collection of carried groups that constantly struggle with each other to dominate society and institutions.