psychreview#3 - Infant and Child Psychology Review Exam #3...

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Infant and Child Psychology Review Exam #3 Chapter 6: The End of Infancy Biological Maturation -Rate of growth in 2 nd year much slower than first year *height:= 4 in (34 in) *weight= 5 lbs (27 lbs) *most of their teeth appear -Accelerated Myelination: within cerebrum, between cerebrum and brainstem *increased coordination *more complex self awareness; emotional responses *voluntary control of behavior *systematic problem-solving; use of symbols (i.e.) language *enhanced analysis of audio and visual input Gaining physical coordination and control -Walking develops with ability to perceive environmental conditions *Ramp Experiment:-- babies needed to learn how ramps work all over again *Walking allows a baby to be away from caregiver -Walking: development, integration and practice of component skills: *Upright posture *Leg alternation *Muscle Strength *Weight shifting *Sense of balance -Manual Dexterity: coordination of fine hand movement increases 1 year-2 ½ *leads to a range of activity (i.e. spoon) -Control of Elimination Requires: *Sensory pathways from bladder/bowels mature to ably transmit signals to brain *Learn to associate these signals as the need to eliminate *Learn to tighten and loosen sphincters *No coordination between age potty trained and ability to stay dry *Most kids dry during day at age 2, dry through night at age 4
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New modes of thought: Cognitive Development -Piaget Theory *Substage 5: Tertiary Circular Reactions -1 yr-1 ½ yr. -Deliberate variation of problem-solving means; experiment for consequences -”trial and error” -Ex: kid dropping toys and stretching arms in different positions to see where they fall *Substage 6: Beginning of Symbolic Representation -1 ½ yr-2 yr -Images and words come to stand for familiar objects; problem solving through symbolic combinations -Evidence: object permanence, pretend play, imitation, understanding models -Object Permanence *Substage 5: Infant will search for an object after it’s moved, but not if moved in secret *Substage 6: Infant will search for a hidden object, it exists somewhere (mastery) - Representation (need timing of word bursts and two-word sentences) -14-16 months: 150 word vocab -18 months: vocabulary burst -18-21 months: combine multiple words 2-word sentences -Problem solving *Substage 5: deliberate problem solving, but trial and error -ex: doesn’t understand why she got the stick through the crib *Substage 6: pictures a series of events before acting -ex: knew if horizontal, it wouldn’t fit thru turned it vertical and easily succeeds -Symbolic Play: one object stands for another
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2008 for the course PSY 331 taught by Professor Moses during the Spring '08 term at San Diego State.

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psychreview#3 - Infant and Child Psychology Review Exam #3...

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