HD 115 Chapter 10

HD 115 Chapter 10 - HD 115 Chapter 10 Emotional and Social...

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HD 115 Chapter 10 Emotional and Social Development in Early Childhood Erikson’s Theory: Initiative vs. Neglect - To Erikson, E.C. was like a vigorous unfolding - Kids energies are free 2 take on the conflict of initiative vs. guilt o Initiative suggests that kids have a new sense of purposefulness, eager 2 take on new tasks, join activities w/ peers - He viewed play as the means via which kids can learn about themselves and their social world - In Freud’s view, kids form a superego (conscience) by identifying w/ same-sex parent; they this adopt moral & gender role standards of their society o For Erikson, negative outcome of E.C. is a strict superego one - Freud’s explanations aren’t accepted now, but Erikson’s image of initiative is Self-Understanding - As I-self becomes firmly established, kids focus on the me-self: knowledge & evaluation of self’s characteristics - Self-concept: set of attributes, abilities, attitudes, values that a person believes defines who they are Foundations of Self-Concept - The stronger a kids self-definition, the more possessive they tend to me (“Mine!” o Early struggles over objects tend 2 be a sign of dev selfhood rather than a sign of selfishness - Adult-child convos about the past serve as a rich source of early self-knowledge - Gradually kids come 2 view the self as a unique person living in a world of others continuously existing in time Emergence of Self-Esteem - Self-esteem: judgments we make about our own worth and the feelings associated w/ these judgments - It is 1 of the most important aspects of self-dev - High SE contributes 2 preschoolers’ initiative during period when they have 2 master a lot of new skills Emotional Development - B/w ages of 2 & 6, kids can better understand their own emotions & those of others, thus being able 2 regulate expression better Understanding Emotion Cognitive Development and Emotional Understanding - Early preschoolers refer 2 causes, results, behavioral signs of emotions & their understanding gradually becomes more complex - They have an impressive ability 2 interpret, predict, & change others feelings Social Experience and Emotional Understanding - The more often moms label emotions & explain them, the more of these words kids pick up and use - MB play contributes 2 emotional understanding - Emotional knowledge helps kids in their efforts 2 get along w/ others o They recognize that acknowledging others’ emotions & explaining their own enhances the quality of relationships Emotional Self-Regulation (ESR) - Language contributes 2 better emotional self regulation: ability 2 control the expression of emotion - Kids of all ages (adults too) find it more difficult 2 act sad/angry/disgusted than pleased - Temperament affect dev of ESR o Kids that experience intense negative emotion have a harder time inhibiting their feelings - Kids have 2 pick up effective strategies; they can do this by watching their parents Self-Conscious Emotions - When kids’ self-concepts are better dev, they are more sensitive 2 praise & blame - Parents should focus on how 2 improve performance rather than giving feedback on the worth of the child & his/her performance
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  • Fall '07
  • Sociology

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