COMM200 exam 3 notes - Chapter 6 Verbal Behaviour...

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Chapter 6: Verbal Behaviour Approaches 1.  A sign stands for or represents something. A referent is the thing/concept represented by  the sign. Two types: o Signal (non-verbal): one-to-one relationship to referent Ex. Sweating shows nervousness o Symbols (verbal): words have no direct relationship to referent Ex. “Horse” & “cheval” are both same animal, “rock” can be stone or  music, language is symbolic o Situational example: when someone says “what’s wrong,” you say, “nothing.”  Anger in voice is signal, “nothing” is symbol Non-verbal/signal aspect is believed o Signals are not intentional, symbols are 2.  Two kinds of meanings o Denotation: literal dictionary meaning (mother = female parent) o Connotation: personal associations with a word, not shared, depends on  interpretation of word (could be +/-) o For communication some shared  denotation  is required 3.  Sapir – Whorf Hypothesis: (Language and Perception Theory of Linguistic Relativity)  o Higher levels of though depend upon language o Structure of language influences the way an environment is perceived Ex, ‘time’ is perceived differently by different people o Language shapes the way we see the world/behav Ex, in our culture we say “don’t be a jerk (character)!” as pposed to “don’t  be immature (behaviour)” 4.  How questions are phrased affect perception  and response : o LOFTUS’ experiment: Articles can affect the way we respond and perceive The  broken headlight assumes it exists A  broken headlight may or may not exist Implications regarding how survey questions are made 5.  4 types of powerless language: o Verbal intensifiers: epitomizes powerless language, more of/more frequent  intensifier   less power So, quite, really, etc Strengthens point you are trying to make o Verbal qualifiers: may have positive effect in situations where not using a qualifier  may be perceived as being closed minded or pushy Possibly, perhaps, maybe, I guess, in my opinion, etc.
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Lessens the strength of a statement o Tag questions: speaker adds a question at the end of a declarative sentence “It’s a nice day” vs. “it’s a nice day, isn’t it?” Second one is insecure/seeking reassurance o Lengthening of requests: “Open the window” vs. “please open the window” second example more polite but less powerful 6. 
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