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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 6: Verbal Behaviour Approaches 1. A sign stands for or represents something. A referent is the thing/concept represented by the sign. Two types: o Signal (non-verbal): one-to-one relationship to referent Ex. Sweating shows nervousness o Symbols (verbal): words have no direct relationship to referent Ex. Horse & cheval are both same animal, rock can be stone or music, language is symbolic o Situational example: when someone says whats wrong, you say, nothing. Anger in voice is signal, nothing is symbol Non-verbal/signal aspect is believed o Signals are not intentional, symbols are 2. Two kinds of meanings o Denotation: literal dictionary meaning (mother = female parent) o Connotation: personal associations with a word, not shared, depends on interpretation of word (could be +/-) o For communication some shared denotation is required 3. Sapir Whorf Hypothesis: (Language and Perception Theory of Linguistic Relativity) o Higher levels of though depend upon language o Structure of language influences the way an environment is perceived Ex, time is perceived differently by different people o Language shapes the way we see the world/behav Ex, in our culture we say dont be a jerk (character)! as pposed to dont be immature (behaviour) 4. How questions are phrased affect perception and response : o LOFTUS experiment: Articles can affect the way we respond and perceive The broken headlight assumes it exists A broken headlight may or may not exist Implications regarding how survey questions are made 5. 4 types of powerless language: o Verbal intensifiers: epitomizes powerless language, more of/more frequent intensifier less power So, quite, really, etc Strengthens point you are trying to make o Verbal qualifiers: may have positive effect in situations where not using a qualifier may be perceived as being closed minded or pushy Possibly, perhaps, maybe, I guess, in my opinion, etc. Lessens the strength of a statement o Tag questions: speaker adds a question at the end of a declarative sentence Its a nice day vs. its a nice day, isnt it? Second one is insecure/seeking reassurance o Lengthening of requests: Open the window vs. please open the window second example more polite but less powerful 6. Females use more powerless language -- some researchers suggest its a result of...
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This note was uploaded on 02/19/2008 for the course COMM 200 taught by Professor Sereno during the Fall '07 term at USC.
- Fall '07