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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 6: Verbal Behaviour Approaches 1. A sign stands for or represents something. A referent is the thing/concept represented by the sign. Two types: o Signal (non-verbal): one-to-one relationship to referent • Ex. Sweating shows nervousness o Symbols (verbal): words have no direct relationship to referent • Ex. “Horse” & “cheval” are both same animal, “rock” can be stone or music, language is symbolic o Situational example: when someone says “what’s wrong,” you say, “nothing.” Anger in voice is signal, “nothing” is symbol • Non-verbal/signal aspect is believed o Signals are not intentional, symbols are 2. Two kinds of meanings o Denotation: literal dictionary meaning (mother = female parent) o Connotation: personal associations with a word, not shared, depends on interpretation of word (could be +/-) o For communication some shared denotation is required 3. Sapir – Whorf Hypothesis: (Language and Perception Theory of Linguistic Relativity) o Higher levels of though depend upon language o Structure of language influences the way an environment is perceived • Ex, ‘time’ is perceived differently by different people o Language shapes the way we see the world/behav • Ex, in our culture we say “don’t be a jerk (character)!” as pposed to “don’t be immature (behaviour)” 4. How questions are phrased affect perception and response : o LOFTUS’ experiment: • Articles can affect the way we respond and perceive • The broken headlight assumes it exists • A broken headlight may or may not exist • Implications regarding how survey questions are made 5. 4 types of powerless language: o Verbal intensifiers: epitomizes powerless language, more of/more frequent intensifier less power • So, quite, really, etc • Strengthens point you are trying to make o Verbal qualifiers: may have positive effect in situations where not using a qualifier may be perceived as being closed minded or pushy • Possibly, perhaps, maybe, I guess, in my opinion, etc. • Lessens the strength of a statement o Tag questions: speaker adds a question at the end of a declarative sentence • “It’s a nice day” vs. “it’s a nice day, isn’t it?” • Second one is insecure/seeking reassurance o Lengthening of requests: • “Open the window” vs. “please open the window” • second example more polite but less powerful 6. Females use more powerless language -- some researchers suggest it’s a result of...
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- Fall '07
- Powerless Language, relational satisfaction, Language and Perception Theory of Linguistic Relativity