ANT1Lecture7 - Anthropology 1 Winter 2008 Human...

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Anthropology 1 – Winter 2008 Human Evolutionary Biology
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How is genetic variation measured? 1. Classical markers Blood groups Protein polymorphisms 2. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) 3. Short tandem repeats (STRs)
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Classical markers L. Luca Cavalli-Sforza
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Blood groups Individuals differ in molecules found on the surface of their red blood cells Differences determined by only a few genes Blood group is typed by mixing unknown blood with known- type blood
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Protein polymorphisms Different sequences of triplets of DNA bases result in different proteins Protein variation reflects underlying DNA variation Lab methods developed in the 1950-1960s allowed protein variation to be detected
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STRs Short DNA sequence is repeated multiple times Individuals are polymorphic in the number of repeats Eg. CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA
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SNPs Position in the genome for which individuals differ in which base pair is present
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Different genetic regions 1. Mitochondrial (mt) DNA 2. X chromosome 3. Y chromosome 4. Autosomes
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mtDNA Short DNA molecule found outside the cell nucleus Traces maternal lines of descent because it is inherited only from the mother
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