HD 115 Chapter 11 - HD 115 Chapter 11 Physical Development...

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HD 115 Chapter 11 Physical Development in Middle Childhood Body Growth - By age 6, avg NA kids weights about 45 lbs and is 3.5 feet tall and grows about 2-3 inches and 5 lbs each year 4 the next few years Worldwide Variations in Body Size - What accounts 4 vast differences in physical size among kids in diff nations? o Both heredity & environment o Body size sometimes results from evolutionary adaptation to climate (i.e. long lean physiques are typical in hot tropical regions whereas short stocky ones are common in cold, Arctic areas) o Small kids tend to live in less dev regions where poverty, hunger, & disease are common Secular Trends in Physical Growth - Secular trends in physical growth: changes in body size from 1 generation 2 the next o These have taken place in industrialized nations over the past 150 years - Its suggested that the larger size of today’s kids is mostly due 2 faster rate of physical dev - Improved health & nutrition are responsible 4 this Skeletal growth - Bones of body lengthen & broaden - By ages 6 – 12, all primary teeth are replaced by permanent ones - Dental health care is important b/c it affects the kid’s appearance, speech, & ability 2 chew properly o Lower SES kids have higher levels of decay & kids w/o insurance are 3X more likely 2 have unmet dental needs o As tooth decay progresses, kids will experience pain, embarrassment at damaged teeth, distraction from play & learning, & dental related school absences - Malocclusion: condition in which upper & lower teeth don’t meet properly; about 1/3 of school age kids suffer from it o One cause is sucking post acquirement of permanent teeth o Another is the crowding of permanent teeth Brain Development - 2 general types of brain tissue: o White matter – consists of myelinated nerve fibers; ↑ steadily throughout childhood & adolescence o Grey matter – consists of neurons & supportive material; ↓ due 2 semantic pruning (reduction of unused synapses) & death of surrounding neurons; as a result, brain becomes more lateralized Common Health Problems Vision and Hearing - Myopia: nearsightedness; it’s the most common vision problem in M.C. (nearly 25% of kids are affected… this # rises to 60% by early adulthood) o Heredity contributes 2 myopia o
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