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Exam 2 Civ Term Sheet Spring

Exam 2 Civ Term Sheet Spring - Law of Emigres migrs was a...

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Law of Emigres – Émigrés was a designation given the Royalist fugitives who fled from France during the revolution of 1789, most of them aristocrats or members of the clergy. The émigrés sought refuge at first in Germany and Austria and later in England and Russia. Before the execution of Louis XVI, the émigrés were active in plots and conspiracies to restore the absolute power of the king. After his death in 1793, they worked to restore the Bourbon monarchy and declared their allegiance to Louis's son, proclaiming him king as Louis XVII. The Law of Émigrés (1793) said that if a person had left France since 1791 their lands in France were confiscated and relatives of the émigrés were deprived of civil rights, and many were guillotined during the Reign of Terror. To be able to return you had to find 8 people (not relatives, employees, debtors/creditors, etc.) Some émigrés returned to France during the Napoleonic period; others did not come back until the restoration of the Bourbons in 1814. Law of the Suspects - An enactment passed on September 17, 1793 during the course of the French Revolution. It allowed for the creation of revolutionary tribunals to try those who were suspected of treason against the Republic and to punish those convicted with death. The corollary of this was that both enforcement and justice subsequently became synonymous with revolutionary governance. The law called for a general roundup of all suspects; it was a deeply comprehensive list, for example: those who, by their conduct, associations, comments, or writings have shown themselves partisans of tyranny or federalism and enemies of liberty [..] This broad definition allowed the Committee for Public Safety to make broad accusations directed at people who they felt threatened the Revolutionary effort. Maximilien Robespierre- Maximilien Robespierre (6 May 1758–28 July 1794) is one of the best-known leaders of the French Revolution. He was an influential member of the Committee of Public Safety and was instrumental in the period of the Revolution commonly known as the Reign of Terror that ended with his arrest and execution in 1794. Politically, Robespierre was a disciple of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, among other Enlightenment philosophes , and a capable articulator of the beliefs of the left-wing bourgeoisie. Robespierre’s main ideal was to ensure the virtue and sovereignty of the people. He disapproved of any acts which could be seen as exposing the nation to counter-revolutionaries and traitors, and became increasingly fearful of the defeat of the Revolution. Robespierre turned against Jacques Danton, saying he was not revolutionary enough, and had him arrested and guillotined. He instigated the Terror and the deaths of his peers as a measure of ensuring a Republic of Virtue; but his ideals went beyond the needs and wants of the populous of France. He became a threat to what he had wanted to ensure and the result was his downfall Committee of Public Safety- The Committee of Public Safety, set up by the National
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