This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.
This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.View Full Document
Unformatted text preview: The Mega Western Civilization Study Guide TERMS Humanism: 14th and 15th century Philosophy of the Italian renaissance Fathered by Petrarch in late 14th century Philosophy centered on the significance of human activity/agency, focus on the classic Greco-Roman texts, learning the ancient world to understand the current world and have a new appreciation for it through the eyes of history. Human Agency- Humans can change the world to a degree, Secularism: if humans can change the world, people may change their opinions about how omniscient and all powerful God is, secularism becomes more popular Living for the moral good of society- Humanism wasnt necessarily a Christian institution, but many educated Christians were Humanist Elitism: Like many political/cultural philosophies, Humanism was mainly recognized among the elite, and represented about 1% of population, no women or peasants Political Humanism: Advised rulers to love their subjects, be magnanimous with possessions, and keep the rule of law in order. Petrarch: 14th Century Coined Dark Ages, saw a lot of war and urban violence, referred to Avignon Papacy as Babylonian Captivity, believed that return to the culture and values of the ancient Romans and concentration of their classic literature could lead to the improvement of a society that had seen the dark times of the 14 th century suckfest Petrarch himself was not worldly or secular, he was a Christian, and recognized the Pagan backgrounds in ancient society, but also thought highly of the moral values that they had. He also saw Humanists and Ancient moral philosophers were superior to Scholastics because it was not just about the quest for a final truth, it was about the betterment of the reader (or hearer) Machiavelli: Between 1503 to 1506, Machiavelli was responsible for the Florentine militia including the defense of the city. In August 1512, following a tangled series of battles, treaties, and alliances, the Medici with the help of Pope Julius II regained power in Florence and the republic was dissolved. Machiavelli, having played a significant role in the republic's anti-Medici government, was removed from office and in 1513 he was accused of conspiracy and arrested. Machiavelli's best known work is The Prince , in which he describes the arts by which a Prince (a ruler) can retain control of his realm. Made significant contributions to western culture: political theory most notably, but also history and historiography, Italian literature, the principles of warfare, and diplomacy. Served as a kind of intermediary between ancient and modern political thought and philosophy Medici: Royal noble Italian family, allowed environment where art and humanism could flourish, led to Italian Renaissance movement, patrons of Galileo, sponsors of art and architecture....
View Full Document