The Spanish-American War was a military conflict between Spain and the United States
that began in April 1898. Hostilities halted in August of that year, and the Treaty of Paris
was signed in December. The war began after the American demand for Spain's
peacefully resolving the Cuban fight for independence was rejected, though strong
expansionist sentiment in the United States may have motivated the government to target
Spain's remaining overseas territories: Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Guam and the
Caroline Islands. Riots in Havana by pro-Spanish "Voluntarios" gave the United States a
reason to send in the warship USS
to indicate high national interest. Tension
among the American people was raised because of the explosion of the USS
"yellow journalism" that accused Spain of extensive atrocities, agitating American public
opinion. The war ended after decisive naval victories for the United States in the
Philippines and Cuba. Only 109 days after the outbreak of war, the Treaty of Paris, which
ended the conflict, gave the United States ownership of the former Spanish colonies of
Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Guam. The war marked American entry into world
affairs: over the course of the next century, the United States had a large hand in various
conflicts around the world.
The Philippine-American War
was an armed military conflict between the United States
of America and the First Philippine Republic, fought between 1899 to at least 1902,
which arose from a Filipino political struggle against U.S. occupation of the Philippines.
While the conflict was officially declared over on July 4, 1902, American troops
continued hostilities against remnants of the Philippine Army and other resistance groups
until 1913, and some historians consider these unofficial extensions part of the war.
the Filipinos, it resulted in tremendous losses to life and liberty. For the Americans, it
cost large sums of money, a number of lives, and nearly cost our principles.
The Panama Canal is a major ship canal that connects the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
Construction of the canal was one of the largest and most difficult engineering projects
ever undertaken. It has had an enormous impact on shipping between the two oceans,
replacing the long and treacherous route via the Drake Passage and Cape Horn at the
southernmost tip of South America. A ship sailing from New York to San Francisco via
the canal travels 9,500 km (6,000 miles), well under half the 22,500 km (14,000 mi) route
around Cape Horn. Although the concept of a canal near Panama dates back to the early
16th century, the first attempt to construct a canal began in 1880 under French leadership.
After this attempt failed and saw 22,000 workers die, the project of building a canal was