HD 115 Chapter 12 - HD 115 Chapter 12 Cognitive Development...

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HD 115 Chapter 12 Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood Piaget’s Theory: The Concrete Operational Stage Achievements of the Concrete Operation Stage - This stage extends from 7 to 11; its more logical, flexible, organized than it was during E.C. Conservation - Kids are able 2 pass conservation tasks; this provides evidence of operations - They are capable of decentration (focusing on several aspects of a problem & relating them) and reversibility (being able 2 think through a series of steps and then mentally reverse the direction) Classification - Now kids pass the class inclusion problem; thus they are more aware of hierarchies - Collections become common (i.e. basketball cards, rocks, bottle caps) Seriation - Seriation: ability to order items along a quantitative dimension (i.e. weight, length) - Transitive inference: mental seriation Spatial Reasoning - Great improvements in spatial reasoning; 2 examples are directions & maps Directions - B/w 7 & 8, kids start performing mental rotations - By 8 – 10, they give clear well-organized directions using a “mental walk” strategy Maps - Cognitive maps: mental representations of familiar environments (school or hood); they require perspective taking skill - They include landmarks - Gradually they maps become more coherent; by the end of M.C. they combine route & landmarks into an overall view of a large scale space
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Limitations of Concrete Operational Thought - Kids only think in an organized logical fashion when dealing w/ concrete info they can perceive directly; their operations work poorly w/ abstract ideas - Kids master Piaget’s concrete operational tasks step by step (not at all once) o Horizontal decalage (dev w/in a stage) is the term to describe this gradual mastery of steps Follow Up Research on Concrete Operational Thought - According 2 Piaget, brain dev combined w/ experience in a rich & varied external world should lead kids 2 attain the COS - Recent evidence suggests that specific cultural & school practices have a lot 2 do w/ mastery of Piagetian tasks Impact of Culture and Schooling - Conservation is often delayed in tribal/village societies (i.e. Hausa of Nigeria) - Very experience of going 2 school promotes mastery o Same age kids tested; those who have been in school longer do better on transitive inference problems - Forms of logic required for Piagetian tasks are heavily influenced by training, context, & cultural conditions An Information Processing View of Concrete Operational Thought - Neo-Piagetian theorists argue that dev of operational thought is understood best in terms of gains in info-processing capacity than sudden shifts 2 new stages - W/ practice cog schemes demand less attention and become more automatic, and thus space in the working memory is freed up - Kids acquire central conceptual structures (networks of concepts & relations that permit them 2 think more effectively about a range of situations) - Kids show a horizontal decalage 4 2 reasons o Diff forms of the same logical insight (conservation for example) vary in processing demands o Kids experiences vary widely -
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