Hist-The Byzantine Empire (7) - HIST 1010 The Byzantine Empire 1 The Byzantine Empire the second Rome a Constantinople the new Rome i The Byzantine

Hist-The Byzantine Empire (7) - HIST 1010 The Byzantine...

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HIST 1010 September 11, 2014 The Byzantine Empire 1. The Byzantine Empire: the second Rome a. Constantinople: the new Rome i. The Byzantine Empire- a continuation of Rome? 1. Argue that really the Byzantine empire is a continuation of the Roman empire 2. Eastern half of empire: Byzantine empire after where Constantinople built it ii. Byzantine self-identification as “Roman” 1. Easter half of empire (Byzantine) looked at themselves as Roman iii. Preservation of Roman imperial institutions 1. Continue on for over 1000 years 2. Series of emperors who rule over them 3. Preserve Roman institutions (senate, tribunes) 4. Continue organizing their politics the way the Romans did iv. Continuation of Roman urban life and “bread and circuses” 1. Roman empire provided free bread to each legal resident (citizen) 2. Constantinople continued tradition for the members of Constantinople 3. Loved gladiator conquest (Circus Maximus, Hippodrome) a. Center of life in Byzantium empire- Hippodrome b. From Romans to Romaioi i. Cultural shift from Latin to Greek and the main language 1. Overtime evolves into a different type of society 2. Majority Greek speaking language a. Members of government spoke Latin 3. Most population spoke Greek—language of administration a. Emperor changed to Greek term ii. Christianization and abandonment of Roman/Greek polytheism 1. Abolish polytheism 2. Worship Greek gods, rather than Roman a. Empire becomes more Christian iii. Modification of Roman culture: from gladiators to chariot racing 1. Byzantine sees gladiator killings as savage—introduce chariot racing a. Gymnastics, different incredible feats 2. Nonviolent sports 3. Byzantine use gentler forms of punishment (will not kill them, but cutting out eyes, etc is okay) a. Don’t crucify anymore iv. Increasing influence of Persian ideas of divine monarchy 1. Learn some aspects of Persian culture 2. Emperors begin to take a divine status a. Force their followers to worship (get down on their knees, stand in awe of them) HIST 1010, Lecture 7: The Byzantine Empire 1
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HIST 1010 September 11, 2014 b. More grandiose c. Christianity and Caesaropapism i. Evolution of Bishoprics and diocese in the early Christian Church 1. Christianity becomes an organized religion a. Each city will have a church leader elected by followers b. Bishops arise as church leader c. Tendency for every major city to elect bishop i. Stand as leaders of church ii. Leaning elders iii. Get together to talk about issues of society 2. Argue over some bishops gaining more status then others ii. Role of the Council of Nicaea (324 C.E.) in the development of Caesaropapism 1. Close relationship between emperors and the religious leaders (bishops)—caesaropapism a. Look to them to decide important issues iii. Significance of the Monophysite controversy and the Council of Chalcedon (451 C.E.) 1. Monophysite argue that Jesus is God in a human body a. Backed by bishop of Alexandria 2. Call a conference: Council of Chalcedon a. Come up with Chalcedonian Christianity: Jesus is God and human at the same time b. Becomes main religion 3.
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