Hist (37)-From Cultural Revolution to Reform - HIST 1020 From Cultural Revolution to Reform the decline and death of Maos China I The height of the

Hist (37)-From Cultural Revolution to Reform - HIST 1020...

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HIST 1020 April 29, 2015 From Cultural Revolution to Reform: the decline and death of Mao’s China I. The height of the Cultural Revolution A. Anarchy and the struggle for power—why are all the people responding to Mao and young people participating in campaign? i. From Red Guard terror to the struggle for power—winners and the losers power struggle 1. Communist regime is established, group of old elites and land owners, businessman, etc. lose status and position and a new elite emerges—Chinese Communist Party members a. Intellectuals and technicians 2. Struggle between 2 groups—groups of students—Red Guards a. Sons and daughters of China’s old elites—people who have lost out when new Communist system is set up, revenge by attacking Communist party who persecuted them b. Other side—sons and daughters who benefited from new Communist regimes 3. Both groups claim to carry out the will of Mao 4. Sons and Daughters of old elites start attacking officials as revenge, then new sons and daughters build up and defend— Factionalism—red guards fighting each other a. Spills into society—no longer just young people causing problems, other groups participate in Cultural Revolution i. Workers, peasants—fight each other over issues of power ii. The rise of the Shanghai Commune—Shanghai is important for Chinese economy 1. Workers in city break up into 2 separate factions—aligned along who is benefiting from status-quo, who is the disadvantaged group —2 factions are called Worker’s Headquarters a. Unskilled, unpaid workers who are at the bottom wrung of latter with treatment and status b. Form own group with objective of rebelling against municipal government and overthrow leaders and seize power for themselves 2. Opposed by Scarlet Guards—mostly skilled workers who have high wages and benefit under existing system a. Fighting to defend local Communist government in Shanghai b. Fight turns bloody and violent 3. 1967, both groups break into army bases and secure weapons for themselves and engage in open street battles a. Worker’s Headquarters win and overthrow existing government and declare Shanghai Commune 4. Shanghai Commune—ordinary people form own government and be in charge, no Communist officials telling them what to do HIST 1020, Lecture 37: Communism in decline 1
HIST 1020 April 29, 2015 a. Claiming a Communist government, but true form of C government claim iii. Mao praises actions—says they should be rising up and seizing power and establishing communes for Of the people, for the people, by the people 1. Sets off similar struggles around the country—different groups of workers fighting against each other a. Disadvantage vs. advantage 2. Declines into anarchy and chaos II. The decline of Maoism A.

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