OB Study Guide

OB Study Guide - OB Study Guide Spring 2008 Foundations of...

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OB Study Guide- Spring 2008 Foundations of Leadership In order to be an effective leader, the leader must have knowledge of organizational behavior (individual, group, and organizational level) as well as behavior skills. Behavior skills include: the ability to facilitate decision making, communicate effectively, exercise power wisely, negotiate effectively, and manage organizational change (technological changes, globalization) -Theories become more complex and less applicable over time, theories include more contingencies over time “it all depends” - Key points Frederick Winslow Taylor’s Cult of Efficiency (Scientific Management) emerged in the 1920’s to resolve issues concerning inefficiency in factories. o Task analysis and standardization (change shovel size to become more efficient) o Pay linked to performance, Taylor believed human beings are economic animals and would support the belief that needs were all extrinsically satisfied. o Systematic selection and training; low entry barriers to employment – this was one of the first steps towards the sophistication of modern day job-fit practices. Classical Management (from European officers’ experience with WWI) o Functions of management: planning, organizing, directing, staffing, and controlling (principles of management remain today) o Principles: specialization (Adam Smith’s proposal of assembly line), unity of command (one and only boss), scalar chain (hierarchy), and span of control. In the 1930’s social science enters business for the first time with the Hawthorne Studies. o They studied the effects of lighting, rest pauses, length of work day, and pay on performance, on job performance; they found that these did not have much power over performance but instead worker’s feelings and the power of informal groups had an effect on performance. Went against Taylor’s logic of efficiency; logic of sentiments and efficiency are usually at conflict with one another. 1940’s shift towards group decision-making; management becomes a learned profession 1950’s more studied conducted on leadership and decision-making. Gordon & Howell Report states that B- schools need to be professionalized and need scientific knowledge. 1960’s-1970’s explosion of research and change; o systems thinking – multiple influences on behavior and organization and environment influence o contingency thinking – it all depends on individual differences, technology, competitive environment, and national culture 1980’s – 2000’s McKribbin and Porter Report on B-Schools – too much analytical and quantitative emphasis; need for social and communication skills, need to globalize curriculum Individual Level An individual’s biological features, personality, values and attitudes, and ability all affect how he or she perceives other people and things. They also affect the individual’s motivation; perception and motivation in turn directly impact the worker’s productivity, absence and turnover rats, and job satisfaction. Biological feature include: age, gender, and tenure.
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2008 for the course SOCI 142gm taught by Professor 10:00-11:50 during the Spring '07 term at USC.

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OB Study Guide - OB Study Guide Spring 2008 Foundations of...

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