CTCS 191 Midterm Study Guide Answers

CTCS 191 Midterm Study Guide Answers - CTCS 191 Midterm...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
CTCS 191 Midterm Study Guide Answers 1. In “Television as a Cultural Forum,” Newcomb and Hirsh assert that in television’s role as central cultural medium, it presents a multiplicity of meanings rather than a monolithic dominant point of view. It often focuses on our most prevalent concerns. Society’s most traditional views are upheld, examined, maintained, and transformed. The emphasis is on process rather than product, on discussion rather than indoctrination, on contradiction and confusion rather than coherences. This multiplicity of meanings relates to Stuart Hall’s encoding/decoding model of media production and reception (developed notably by David Morley). Encoding refers to how the world is represented or signified in media texts. Nothing on television – whether it is the way women are represented or the way crimes are reports – is natural. It is the product of a series of encoding processes. However, the intentions of the producer or writer should not be confused with the preferred meaning which involves assumptions of which the writer and producer may be unaware. For example, in “Queen for a Day” the producers of the show decided to reward the ‘Queen’ with prizes that were connected to housework and lavish jewelry and clothing. The producer’s intention was simply to reward the deserving Queen; however, the show contained preferred meanings about gender roles. The preferred/dominant/hegemonic meaning is part of the decoding process which is performed by the audience. For example, the preferred reading occurs when the viewer enjoys the show and does not question the gender role that housework is something that women do and that they fancy ornate items that enhance and refine their beauty. Another form of decoding is negotiated reading in which an interpretation that may accept one of the text’s preferred meaning but not another. For instance, the viewer may notice that the prizes related to housework are stereotypical but failing to feel the same way about the jewelry and clothing prizes. Alternatively, the oppositional reading is the interpretation in which the preferred meaning of the text is understood but rejected. In this instance, the viewer would reject the show, seeing the use of gender roles as part of a persistent pattern of sexist imagery. Today, the Oprah Winfrey Show operates in similar ways in which the viewer decodes the producers’ and Oprah’s encoded messages. In Oprah’s “Wildest Dream” episode, she gives away a Pontiac to every audience member. The dominant reading is that everyone in the audience was deserving of a new car and that the fully-loaded Pontiac is the perfect car that everyone wants. The negotiated reading can be that the viewer recognizes that everyone in the audience deserves a new car but does not agree that a Pontiac is the perfect car for these people. The oppositional reader will understand the dominant reading and rejected it believing that Oprah is just another tool
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 4

CTCS 191 Midterm Study Guide Answers - CTCS 191 Midterm...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online