4_DivingPhysiology2008

4_DivingPhysiology2008 - 4/10/2008 Potential Foraging...

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4/10/2008 1 Benthic Mesopelagic Epipelagic Potential Foraging Strategies Continental Shelf Break Costa et al. 2001, Costa et al. In Press Benthic eeding Epipelagi c Feeding Foraging Patterns Feeding Day Night Day & Night Common Dolphin Common Dolphin Foraging Behavior
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4/10/2008 2 Common Dolphin Foraging Behavior Antarctic Fur Seal Antarctic Fur Seal Krill – vertically migrating prey py Small body size prevents deep diving Antarctic Fur Seal
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4/10/2008 3 0 20 40 Sunrise Sunset Blue Whale - Diel Dive Pattern Depth (m) 60 80 100 120 140 Time of Day 17 19 21 23 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 160 180 200 Day Night Need millions of krill/day Safety in numbers Epipelagic Mid-water feeding Foraging Patterns Multiple, small prey Diel pattern Benthic On the bottom Single, large prey Consistent dive depth
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4/10/2008 4 5 1 01 52 02 53 0 250 200 150 Time (minutes) Antarctic fur seal 300 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 00 Depth (meters) Australian sea lion 0 5 Hooker’s sea lion 5 1 0 Time (minutes) Antarctic fur seal 0 5 Australian sea lion 0 5 Hooker’s sea lion Australian Sea Lion Australian Sea Lion 1988 epth (m) 0 80 100 Australian Sea Lion Benthic Feeder y of dives 100 150 De 0 20 40 60 024681 0 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 8 2 0 2 2 2 4 Frequenc y 0 50 Time of day
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4/10/2008 5 Winter 1988 Time (hours:min) 0 12:00 12:06 12:12 12:18 12:24 12:30 3.7 3.2 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.3 2.7 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.3 2.2 1.2 Australian Sea Lion Benthic Feeder ve depth (meters) 40 20 Lost foraging time Di v 80 60 2.5 2.0 1.5 2.0 2.0 1.8 2.3 Northern Elephant Seals Le Boeuf et al . 2000 200 Complete Foraging Trip 600 400 Depth (m) 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 Day (julian) 1000 800 Transit Between Foraging Bouts 0 Elephant seal diving Depth (meters) -400 -300 -200 -100 Traveling Dives Time (hrs) 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 -600 -500 Foraging Dives Foraging Dives
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4/10/2008 6 Northern Elephant Seal Females trong diel Strong diel foraging behavior Deep diving during the day gy Forage on deep scattering layer (DSL) Diving Physiology and ehavior Behavior Fundamental Constraint on Foraging Behavior Return to Surface to Breathe Studies of Dive Behavior • Dive depths from entanglements • Observations • Electronic developments – instruments to measure diving
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4/10/2008 7 Marine Mammal Publications 50 Diving N = 381 racking 66 of Publications 20 30 40 Tracking = 66 Year 1970 1980 1990 2000 No. 0 10 Why Marine Mammals Dive? 1) To find food 2) To avoid predators 3) Energy efficient Marine Mammal Diving Depths 0 S e a o t r W lr u s Otariids Phocids Odontocetes M y ic ve depth (m) -1000 -500 Di v -2500 -2000 -1500 Average Depth Max Depth Marine Mammal Diving Depths 0 Otariids Phocids Odontocetes -1000 -500 -2500 -2000 -1500 Average Depth Max Depth
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4/10/2008 8 Marine Mammal Diving Depths 0 S e a o t r W lr u s Otariids Phocids Odontocetes M y ic ve depth (m) -1000 -500 Di v -2500 -2000 -1500 Average Depth Max Depth ressure effects Diving Physiology I. Pressure effects II. Pressure diseases III. Breath hold diving Pressure Effects • Hydrostatic pressure ressure at depth due to weight – pressure at depth due to weight of water column Hydrostatic Pressure Depth (m) Pressure (Atms) Surface 1 0 Harbor seals, CA sea lions 10 2 20 3 30 4 40 5 50 6 Elephant seals Sperm whales, eaked whales 100 11 500 51 1000 101 3000 301 beaked whales
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4/10/2008 9 Pressure Effects • Hydrostatic pressure
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4_DivingPhysiology2008 - 4/10/2008 Potential Foraging...

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