10_MolecularSyst - Insights from Molecular Systematics 25.4...

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Insights from Molecular Systematics 25.4 - 25.5
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2
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3 Molecular trees span both short and long periods of time because molecules evolve at different rates
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4 Conserved sequences like 16s rRNA resolve deep divergences
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5 Rapidly evolving sequences like mtDNA resolve more recent divergence “mtEve”
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6 Molecular phylogenies rely on two types of homologous genes: orthologous and paralogous
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7 A B C D Ancestral species A B C D A B C C 1 D Species 1 Species 2 Orthologous (Used to build species trees) Paralogous (Used to reconstruct gene family expansions)
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8 Duplicate genes may go on to develop new functions Duplicate genes appear to play a major role in the evolution of the human brain: Fortna et al., 2004, PLoS Biology.
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9 Gene number does not predict complexity Rice: 40,000 - 50,000 Mustard weed: 25,500 Pufferfish: 21,000 Human: 20,000 - 25,000 Nematode: 20,000
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10 Molecular phylogenies track evolutionary time if we assume a molecular clock
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11 Molecular Clocks The molecular clock is a yardstick for measuring absolute time of evolutionary change based on the observation that some genes and other regions of genomes seem to evolve at constant rates
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12 Neutral Theory Neutral theory states that much evolutionary
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  • Fall '06
  • 11:00-01:50pm
  • RNA, Evolution, Phylogenetics, molecular clock, Molecular Clocks

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