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Unformatted text preview: 21/11/2021, 18:01 PHYS1160 Activity 8: Attempt review School of Physics Counselling Wellbeing & Health COVID-19 Site Home Student Help Staff Help PHYS1160-Introduction to Astronomy - T3 2021 Dashboard My courses PHYS1160-5219_01557 Module 2 (Weeks 3 & 4) — The Solar System PHYS1160 Activity 8 Started on Sunday, 21 November 2021, 5:46 PM State Finished Completed on Sunday, 21 November 2021, 6:01 PM Time taken 15 mins 27 secs Marks 19.67/20.00 Grade 9.83 out of 10.00 (98%) 1/16 21/11/2021, 18:01 PHYS1160 Activity 8: Attempt review Question 1 Correct Mark 1.00 out of 1.00 Follow the Water "Follow the Water" is a strategy used in a search for life like our own, outside the Earth. Liquid water is an essential solvent for the chemistry of our life, and its availability is one major factor for life to flourish (but it is not a sufficient condition). Life seems to be able to thrive in water that can be extremely cold or hot provided that water remains liquid. In the simulation Phases of Water, you see the phase diagram for water on the left side and the animation that shows molecules of water under different pressures and temperatures on the right. When you change temperature and pressure water goes through different phases: solid, liquid and gas. Pressure: Temperature: After exploring the simulation, do you think that a planet without an atmosphere could have a liquid water on its surface (1 attempt)? Select one: Yes No Your answer is correct. The planet without an atmosphere would have close to 0 atm pressure. In such conditions water can only occur as ice or a gas. The correct answer is: No 2/16 21/11/2021, 18:01 Question 2 Correct Mark 3.00 out of 3.00 PHYS1160 Activity 8: Attempt review Habitable Venus? Venus has a similar size to Earth and it is often called its twin sister. Venus is closer to the Sun than Earth therefore it receives almost twice as much solar energy than Earth. Despite the inhospitable surface of Venus, perhaps there are other ways to make the planet habitable. In the video above, such ideas are considered. Watch it carefully, as this will also help you to answer some questions about the atmosphere of Venus in the next question as well. Finish the following sentences (2 attempts): Venus absorbs only half of the solar energy absorbed by the Earth because Venus is covered with very reflective clouds. Despite the fact that Venus does not absorb a lot of solar energy, its surface has a temperature of about 457oC because of the runaway greenhouse effect. Your answer is correct. Venus is covered with clouds that reflect sunlight very efficiently. However the runaway greenhouse effect makes planet's surface extremely hot. The correct answer is: Habitable Venus? Venus has a similar size to Earth and it is often called its twin sister. Venus is closer to the Sun than Earth therefore it receives almost twice as much solar energy than Earth. Despite the inhospitable surface of Venus, perhaps there are other ways to make the planet habitable. In the video above, such ideas are considered. Watch it carefully, as this will also help you to answer some questions about the atmosphere of Venus in the next question as well. Finish the following sentences (2 attempts): Venus absorbs only half of the solar energy absorbed by the Earth because [Venus is covered with very reflective clouds.] Despite the fact that Venus does not absorb a lot of solar energy, its surface has a temperature of about 457oC because of the [runaway greenhouse effect.] 3/16 21/11/2021, 18:01 Question 3 Correct Mark 3.00 out of 3.00 PHYS1160 Activity 8: Attempt review Atmosphere of Venus Venus has a very different atmosphere than the Earth. It does not appear that Venus has a very efficient geochemical carbon cycle (if any), where carbon is recycled between the atmosphere and the surface of the planet, which in turn, helps to stabilise temperature on the planet. On the Earth this cycle is operating due to plate tectonics, but Venus does not have plate tectonics. This is an image of Venus taken with the Mariner 10 flyby mission, showing the planet covered with clouds. Finish the following sentences (3 attempts): The molecule/element that dominates in the atmosphere of Venus is Carbon Dioxide . Venus is covered in a permanent layer of clouds of which the main component is Sulfuric Acid . Your answer is correct. Carbon dioxide cannot be removed from the atmosphere of Venus like in the Earth's case. Venus does not have liquid water, it is most likely geologically inactive and does not have plants that all contribute to reduction of carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere. The clouds in Venusian atmosphere are made of sulfuric acid and some water vapour. Sulfuric acid is probably a trapped product of volcanic eruptions throughout the history of the planet. The correct answer is: Atmosphere of Venus Venus has a very different atmosphere than the Earth. It does not appear that Venus has a very efficient geochemical carbon cycle (if any), where carbon is recycled between the atmosphere and the surface of the planet, which in turn, helps to stabilise temperature on the planet. On the Earth this cycle is operating due to plate tectonics, but Venus does not have plate tectonics. 4/16 21/11/2021, 18:01 PHYS1160 Activity 8: Attempt review This is an image of Venus taken with the Mariner 10 flyby mission, showing the planet covered with clouds. Finish the following sentences (3 attempts): The molecule/element that dominates in the atmosphere of Venus is [Carbon Dioxide]. Venus is covered in a permanent layer of clouds of which the main component is [Sulfuric Acid]. Question 4 Correct Mark 1.00 out of 1.00 What is the atmospheric pressure on the surface of Venus (2 attempts)? Select one: Almost 50 times lower than the pressure on the Earth's surface. Almost 90 times higher than the pressure on the Earth's surface. Exactly the same as the pressure on the Earth's surface. Your answer is correct. The atmospheric pressure at the surface of the planet is almost 90 times higher than at the surface of the Earth. The correct answer is: Almost 90 times higher than the pressure on the Earth's surface. 5/16 21/11/2021, 18:01 PHYS1160 Activity 8: Attempt review Question 5 Correct Mark 1.00 out of 1.00 Greenhouse Effect The greenhouse effect is an important factor in determining whether a planet is habitable. In the case of Venus the dense CO atmosphere raises the planet's temperature by about 510 degrees. Earlier in its history before this "runaway greenhouse" occurred it may have had habitable conditions. In the case of the Earth the greenhouse effect helps to keep the planet habitable. The Earth's surface temperature without greenhouse gases is thought to be about -18ºC. Use this information and the simulation to figure out how reflective is Earth's surface or its average albedo. Note that its value will not be the same as in textbooks, because we use a very simple model in this simulation. Albedo H2O 29% CO2 1000 Pa O2 385 ppm 20% Type the albedo as found by the simulation for the conditions stated above. Input as a number between 0 and 100 (3 attempts): Answer: 40 The albedo of the Earth is only 40% according to our simple model as compared with 84% albedo of Venus. More sophisticated models that take into account all greenhouse gases, suggest that albedo of the Earth is closer to 30%. The correct answer is: 40 % 6/16 21/11/2021, 18:01 PHYS1160 Activity 8: Attempt review Question 6 Correct Mark 2.00 out of 2.00 Water on Mars? Today Mars has very little water, which is either frozen or exists as water vapour in the atmosphere. Mars is believed to have had a much thicker atmosphere in the past that allowed for the existence of liquid water on the planet. This view has been supported by observations made by the rovers, Spirit and Opportunity. It is possible that life could have existed on early Mars. Pressure: Temperature: Data: Average surface pressure on Mars: 0.0074 atm Winter temperature on Martian poles: -140°C to -80°C Winter temperature at the equator: -100°C to -40°C Summer temperature on Martian equator: -25°C to 20°C In the simulation select the average pressure on the Martian surface and maximum and minimum temperatures observed during Martian summer and winter (given above) and decide which statement is correct (2 attempts): Select one: Liquid water can exist on the Martian poles in winter. In the Martian winter it is possible to have liquid water on the equator. In Martian summer it is possible to have liquid water in limited areas on the planet. Your answer is correct. In Martian summer it is possible to have liquid water in limited areas of the planet around the equator. The salty brine is even more likely to stay in liquid form in Martian conditions. Read more about it here. The correct answer is: In Martian summer it is possible to have liquid water in limited areas on the planet. 7/16 21/11/2021, 18:01 Question 7 Correct Mark 3.00 out of 3.00 PHYS1160 Activity 8: Attempt review Watery past of Mars The Spirit and Opportunity rovers were sent to Mars to find the evidence of water in the early history of the planet. Opportunity still delivers scientific data. Which of the following provide evidence for the watery past of Mars (3 attempts): Select one or more: Topographic features that look like river valleys Minerals such as hematite and jarosite Observations of wind devils Observations of clouds in the atmosphere Spherical "blueberries" Your answer is correct. The evidence of Martian watery past is based on topographic features and discovery of minerals, such as jarosite and hematite that usually form in the presence of liquid water, and the blueberries which was thought to precipitate from liquid water. The correct answers are: Topographic features that look like river valleys, Minerals such as hematite and jarosite, Spherical "blueberries" 8/16 21/11/2021, 18:01 PHYS1160 Activity 8: Attempt review Question 8 Correct Mark 1.00 out of 1.00 The role of Tides Tides on Earth may have helped life development on the planet. You can learn more about it from this article. Moon Sun Effect of Earth's rotation Watch Australia carefully on the image of the Earth in the simulation and fill in the following blanks (3 attempts): Australian experiences 2 tidal bulges over a 24 hour period. Earth's rotation effects the tides by making them proceed the line between the Moon and the Earth. . Your answer is correct. There are 2 high tides in 24 hours. The high tides appear to proceed the line connecting Earth and Moon due to rotation of the Earth. Worth noting: Tidal forces have influence not only on the oceans but on the entire planet. If they are strong enough, they can lead to enhanced volcanism, which is a case for the Jupiter's moon, Io. The correct answer is: The role of Tides Tides on Earth may have helped life development on the planet. You can learn more about it from this article. 9/16 21/11/2021, 18:01 PHYS1160 Activity 8: Attempt review Moon Sun Effect of Earth's rotation Watch Australia carefully on the image of the Earth in the simulation and fill in the following blanks (3 attempts): Australian experiences [2] tidal bulges over a 24 hour period. Earth's rotation effects the tides by [making them proceed the line between the Moon and the Earth.]. 10/16 21/11/2021, 18:01 Question 9 Correct Mark 1.00 out of 1.00 PHYS1160 Activity 8: Attempt review Water on Jupiter's moons The moons of outer planets are icy, cold bodies that do not have environments necessary for life like ours to originate and thrive on their surfaces. However, recent observations from such conditions may exist under ice. Plans are being made to explore this possibility with the NASA mission. Learn more about it from here. This is a hypothesised internal structure of the moon of Jupiter, Europa. We think that Jupiter's moons Europa, Ganymede and even Calisto may hold the reservoirs of underground liquid water. What is the reason for possible existence of liquid water there (2 attempts)? Select one: These moons receive enough heat from the Sun for water to be liquid. Jupiter is hot enough to warm up the orbiting moon to the temperature of liquid water. The moons undergo tidal heating due to the presence of Jupiter and their neighbour moons. Your answer is correct. The reason for a possible existence of the underground ocean on Europa is tidal heating due to Jupiter and its other moons. The correct answer is: The moons undergo tidal heating due to the presence of Jupiter and their neighbour moons. 11/16 21/11/2021, 18:01 Question 10 Correct Mark 1.00 out of 1.00 PHYS1160 Activity 8: Attempt review Europa is one of the Jupiter's moons that scientists plan to visit with a robotic mission to investigate the hypothesis of the underground ocean further. Why do you think they chose Europa (2 attempts)? Select one or more: Europa has terrain resembling sea ice on Earth Europa provides a more favourable environment for operation of a spacecraft than the other moons Europa has an induced magnetic field that may be driven by underground salt water The other moons (Ganymede and Callisto) may have oceans that are more deeply buried underground and therefore more difficult to study Your answer is correct. Some discoveries that support the possibility of the ocean under the surface of Europa are the cracked surface that looks like the sea ice on Earth, and the measurement of the induced magnetic field that could be driven by salty water. Europa's ocean may also be residing closer to the surface than underground oceans of other moons of Jupiter. Europa is actually a very difficult environment for spacecraft operation because of the high radiation levels and so does not provide a more favourable environment for operation of a spacecraft than that the other moons. The correct answers are: Europa has terrain resembling sea ice on Earth, Europa has an induced magnetic field that may be driven by underground salt water, The other moons (Ganymede and Callisto) may have oceans that are more deeply buried underground and therefore more difficult to study 12/16 21/11/2021, 18:01 Question 11 Correct Mark 1.00 out of 1.00 PHYS1160 Activity 8: Attempt review Enceladus Saturn's moons Enceladus and Titan are also potentially habitable environments. Life like ours, that require liquid water, is unlikely to flourish on the frozen surface of Enceladus. However, tidal heating on its interior due to close presence of Saturn and its larger moons, may allow the underground ocean of liquid water, where life could possibly become established. Which unusual feature was discovered on Enceladus by Cassini spacecraft (2 attempts)? Select one: Plumes of ice streaming from the polar region. Thick atmosphere composed of nitrogen and methane. Lakes on the surface of the moon. Your answer is correct. Plumes of ice water have been observed to stream from the polar region of the moon. The correct answer is: Plumes of ice streaming from the polar region. 13/16 21/11/2021, 18:01 Question 12 Correct Mark 0.67 out of 1.00 PHYS1160 Activity 8: Attempt review Select the features that are common to both Enceladus and Europa (3 attempts): Select one or more: Possible water ocean under the icy surface. Hotter than expected south polar region. Cracked, icy surface resembling sea ice on Earth. An atmosphere containing methane. Your answer is correct. Enceladus and Europa have similarly cracked surface resembling the ice on sea on Earth. They both may have underground ocean. A hotter than expected south polar region is a feature found only on Enceladus, not Europa. The correct answers are: Possible water ocean under the icy surface., Cracked, icy surface resembling sea ice on Earth. 14/16 21/11/2021, 18:01 Question 13 Correct Mark 1.00 out of 1.00 PHYS1160 Activity 8: Attempt review Life on Titan? Titan is the largest moon of Saturn surrounded by a hazy atmosphere. Titan receives very little of Solar radiation, and its surface temperature is only -180 C despite some greenhouse effect provided by molecules like methane in atmosphere. Liquid water cannot exist on the surface of this moon but a possibility of underground ocean is feasible. Titan has hydrological cycle with clouds, rainfall, lakes, flowing rivers and evaporation. Complete the following sentences (3 attempts): Watch the video clip and observe the images from landing of Huygens probe that show riverbeds on Titan. The most likely liquids that exists on the surface of this moon are methane and ethane. Titan is the only moon in the Solar System with a thick atmosphere. Its major component is nitrogen. Your answer is correct. In the cold environment of Titan methane and ethane are liquids and can form hydrological cycle. Nitrogen is the main component of Titan's atmosphere, just like nitrogen is the main component of the Earth's atmosphere. The correct answer is: Life on Titan? Titan is the largest moon of Saturn surrounded by a hazy atmosphere. Titan receives very little of Solar radiation, and its surface temperature is only -180 C despite some greenhouse effect provided by molecules like methane in atmosphere. Liquid water cannot exist on the surface of this moon but a possibility of underground ocean is feasible. Titan has hydrological cycle with clouds, rainfall, lakes, flowing rivers and evaporation. Complete the following sentences (3 attempts): Watch the video clip and observe the images from landing of Huygens probe that show riverbeds on Titan. The most likely liquids that exists on the surface of this moon are [methane and ethane.] Titan is the only moon in the Solar System with a thick atmosphere. Its major component is [nitrogen.] 15/16 21/11/2021, 18:01 PHYS1160 Activity 8: Attempt review 16/16 21/11/2021, 17:45 PHYS1160 Activity 7: Attempt review School of Physics Counselling Wellbeing & Health COVID-19 Site Home Student Help Staff Help PHYS1160-Introduction to Astronomy - T3 2021 Dashboard My courses PHYS1160-5219_01557 Module 2 (Weeks 3 & 4) — The Solar System PHYS1160 Activity 7 Started on Sunday, 21 November 2021, 5:18 PM State Finished Completed on Sunday, 21 November 2021, 5:45 PM Time taken 26 mins 43 secs Marks 14.50/16.00 Grade 9.06 out of 10.00 (91%) 1/21 21/11/2021, 17:45 Question 1 Correct Mark 1.00 out of 1.00 PHYS1160 Activity 7: Attempt review Launching a rocket for a space mission Only in the 1950s did we develop the capability to launch rockets into space. Different types of launch vehicles (rockets) are used to fly a payload, which can be a satellite that needs to be put into Earth orbit, or a spacecraft with instruments that are designed to reach another planet. Rockets have multiple components called stages. Some of them are designed to separate and disintegrate in the atmosphere. Some launch vehicles are designed to be used repeatably like space shuttles. Complete the following sentences (3 attempts): In order to launch a satellite into orbit around Earth, the rocket must accelerate to a speed of 8 km/s (17895 miles/hour) In order to launch a spacecraft to another planet, the rocket would need to reach a speed that is greater than 8 km/s . . Your answer is correct. The orbital velocity that the object needs to acquire in order to orbit the Earth is close to 8 km/s (17895 miles/hour). The speed needed to reach another planet is greater than 8 km/s; this is the escape velocity of about 11 km/s or greater. The correct answer is: Launching a rocket for a space mission Only in the 1950s did we develop the capability to launch rockets into space. Different types of launch vehicles (rockets) are used to fly a payload, which can be a satellite that needs to be put into Earth orbit, or a spacecraft with instruments that are designed to reach another planet. Rockets have multiple components called stages. Some of them are designed to separate and disintegrate in the atmosphere. Some launch vehicles are designed to be used repeatably like space...
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