Ro_Lecture1

Ro_Lecture1 - The origin of genetics: The study of genetics...

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1 The origin of genetics: The study of genetics begins when Gregor Mendel, in 1865, addressed the question : "How are characters passed on from one generation to the next?” Mendel was the first to make a serious attempt of experimentally answering the question of heredity and not only were his answers correct, they were a complete and compelling proof. Mendel published in 1866 but little attention was paid to his work until 1900, when it was simultaneously rediscovered by three scientists, one in Holland, one in Austria, and one in Germany. There are often impressions that Mendel was removed from the scientific community, or that his papers were not well circulated. This was not true. All three of Mendel's rediscovers had read Mendel's work prior to publishing their own work. The lack of attention paid to Mendel is even more mysterious considering the clarity of the ideas presented in his original work.
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2 Prior history To fully appreciate Mendel's work, one must keep in mind the prevailing theories of inheritance Pangenesis : Preformationism : **Blending inheritance : Mendel ignored development, focused solely on transmission of traits
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3 Gregor Mendel was born on either 20th or 22nd July, 1822 in Heizendorf (today Hynice in the Czech Republic). From 1851 to 1853, Gregor Mendel studied zoology, botany, chemistry, and physics at the University of Vienna. He studied botany under Prof. Unger where he learned crosses He studied physics under Prof. Doppler where he learnt statistics Mendel returned to Brno and began his experiments with the hybrid cultivation of pea plants in 1856. After spending eight years carrying out experimental work in the monastery garden, he reported on the results of his observations at the meetings of the Association for Natural Research in Brno on the evenings of February 8th and March 8th, 1865
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4 Model organisms The genomes of more than 180 organisms have been sequenced since 1995. www.genomenewsnetwork.org A model organism is a species that has been widely studied, usually because it is easy to maintain and breed in a lab and/or has particular experimental advantages. Remember: processes are conserved!!!!! Model organisms are used to obtain information about other species – including humans – that are more difficult to study directly. Genetic model organisms Experimental model organisms Genomic model organisms
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5 Model organisms Human model organisms . E.coli Yeast Worm Fly Zebra fish Mouse Arabidopsis Modern genetics: Location in evolutionary tree Genome size, Ease of cloning a gene Ability to insert DNA back into genome Ability to monitor development Xenopus, dog, tetrahymena
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6 The Pea Mendel chose the common garden pea to study patterns of inheritance. This was a excellent choice as a model system for the following reasons: 1 2 3 4 He identified over 20 traits and studied 7 (why 7?) Seed shape: round versus wrinkled Seed color: yellow versus green Flower color: red versus white Pod shape: inflated versus pinched Pod color: yellow versus green Flower position: axial versus terminal Stem length: long versus short
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Ro_Lecture1 - The origin of genetics: The study of genetics...

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