THE FOUR Ps OF GLOBALIZATIONBox 1.0 - The Phenomenon of GlobalizationGlobalization is a not a novel phenomenon. It has occurred in three distinct waves.1.In the first wave, the age of discovery (1450-1850), globalization was decisively shaped by European expansion and conquest.2.The second wave evidenced a major expansion in the spread and entrenchment of European empires.3.The contemporary globalization (1960 on) is defined by the technological/communication Box 1.1 - The Process of GlobalizationThe process of globalization is driven by three engines: technics (technological change and social organization); economics (markets and capitalism); and politics (power, interests, and institutions).Technics is central to any account of globalization since it is a truism that without modern communications infrastructures, in particular, a global
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Globalization, Mongol Empire, contemporary globalization, Muqtedar Khan