2•Conservation biology is a young field thatintegrates:–Ecology–Behavioral ecology–Physiology–Molecular biology–Genetics–EvolutionConservation Genetics
3•Conservation biology has grown rapidly inresponse the biodiversity crisis•Some depressing statistics–Nearly 50% of land surface has been altered byhumans–About 75% of marine fisheries are fully exploitedor overexploited–We have increased atmospheric CO2concentrations by 30%–Rate of species loss may be as much as 1000xhigher than at any point in the past 100,000 years
Genetic diversity in a vole populationSpecies diversity in a coastal redwood ecosystemCommunity and ecosystem diversityacross the landscape of an entire region•Genetic diversity–Genetic variation withinand between populations•Species diversity–The number and relativeabundance of species•Ecosystem diversity–The diversity of habitats,communities andecological processes
5Why preserve biodiversity?1. For its own sake.
6Why preserve biodiversity?2. For our own sake.Rosy periwinklePacific Yew Tree
7Biodiversity particularly importantfor ecosystem services–Pollination, nutrient cycling, purification of air and water,detoxification and decomposition of wastes, moderation ofweather extremes–Worth ~$33 trillion a year!
8Four Major Threats to Biodiversity•Habitat destruction•Introduced species•Overexploitation•Disruption of “interaction networks”