2•Conservation biology is a young field that integrates:–Ecology–Behavioral ecology–Physiology–Molecular biology–Genetics–EvolutionConservation Genetics
3•Conservation biology has grown rapidly in response the biodiversity crisis•Some depressing statistics–Nearly 50% of land surface has been altered by humans–About 75% of marine fisheries are fully exploited or overexploited–We have increased atmospheric CO2concentrations by 30%–Rate of species loss may be as much as 1000x higher than at any point in the past 100,000 years
Genetic diversity in a vole populationSpecies diversity in a coastal redwood ecosystemCommunity and ecosystem diversityacross the landscape of an entire region•Genetic diversity–Genetic variation within and between populations•Species diversity–The number and relative abundance of species•Ecosystem diversity–The diversity of habitats, communities and ecological processes
5Why preserve biodiversity?1. For its own sake.
6Why preserve biodiversity?2. For our own sake. Rosy periwinklePacific Yew Tree
7Biodiversity particularly important for ecosystem services–Pollination, nutrient cycling, purification of air and water, detoxification and decomposition of wastes, moderation of weather extremes–Worth ~$33 trillion a year!
8Four Major Threats to Biodiversity•Habitat destruction•Introduced species•Overexploitation•Disruption of “interaction networks”